Once Klint Eastwood has told that America has presented to the world two great genres - a jazz and a western. Become famous for participation in cowboy's films the actor always was the great admirer of a jazz - music, whose roots are lost in the heart of centuries, but undoubtedly become to one of the most popular musical directions of the present by 1940 years.
Disputes on historical roots of a jazz are conducted for a long time, despite almost unanimous opinion that for the first time a jazz began to play New Orleans and there there were first great executors of this direction. It is possible to assert safely that the jazz has arisen as music for a black audience, but have written down the first jazz compositions white executors.
the Artful design of roots
It is impossible to tell that the jazz evolved from one musical style. Its origin attribute to New Orleans because there in the end of a XIX-th century a unique variety of styles reigned: the French dances inherited from Frenchmen - founders of New Orleans, motives "схыюую ¶юыър" delivered by immigrants from the Old World which and can be heard today in southern states (by the way, some musicologists assert that the base form of a jazz - a 12-clock blues - occurs from national Scottish melodies). He has tested and influence of music of wind bands without which in New Orleans any funeral did not manage. All these elements of influence of the white population of southern states of America were absorbed in itself by music world of the Afro-Americans.
the African influence
Variety of features of black music is obvious even to nonspecialists. One of them - an emotional saturation of musical culture of the black population: for example, a leitmotif of church church chanting the hope of a life after death which will bring long-awaited simplification from terrible living conditions in the slaveholding South sounds. Other aspect - value of the African musical traditions.
Possibly, African heritage has played a role in gravitation of a jazz to pentatonike - scale from five notes, where distinction between major and minor thirds conditionally enough. The same African influence it is possible to explain both more free pulsation and a rhythm though at the same time any of musical styles of Europe did not give them bolshego value.
Piano compositions testify To complexity of black music in style "ЁІу=рщь" which feature was fragmentary (in English "ragged"), a rough rhythm ("time"). The fashion on regtajm has arisen in the XX-th century beginning, however it is a lot of admirers of this direction and today.
Scott Dzhoplin (1868-1917) was One of the greatest authors regtajma, whose plays are popular and today. Its beautiful melodies and an infectious rhythm lean against the same musical tradition from which the jazz has grown.
In New Orleans black inhabitants had many possibilities to play and invent new styles. Annual celebrating of a pancake week was accompanied by splash in national creativity. In 1898 quarter of red lanterns of Storivill where musicians always were required has opened. Dances were regularly arranged to entertain numerous visitors of port, but also, there was variety of customs, inconceivable without music. For example, the funeral procession was accompanied necessarily by an orchestra playing mourning marches on the way to a cemetery, and on the way back - easy melodies.
the Sound starts to be made out
However, finally all disputes on jazz roots are not too important, the main thing are the people, managed to unite all currents in uniform great musical style. About them we know a little, behind an exception kornetista to Baddi Boldena (1877-1931) and trumpeter Freddi Kepparda (1890-1933), legendary musicians, it is masterful owning tools.
the music Composed by them was played by group of executors the tools most approaching for the striding orchestra: a contrabass (it is frequent - a forelock), bandzho or a guitar and a drum, and wind group conducting a melody - a pipe, a trombone and a clarnet.
Wind instruments executed motive in free arrangement, binding and twisting melodic lines, the theme was conducted, as a rule, by a pipe, the trombone supplemented bass party and set change of chords, and it is necessary to all to these the clarnet soared.
This sounding has got a great popularity and has won set of followers and admirers. Such music was necessary to people - under it it was possible to dance, it was pleasant to listen to it. Harmony was very simple, but use of blues notes (transition to minor thirds there where the classical western tradition orders use major) gave it attractive novelty, and the rhythm left nobody indifferent.
No more than entertainment
By 1911 in New Orleans the conventional style in which played both black, and white musicians and which could be executed in different tool arrangements was issued. This style began to name a word "фцрч" (jazz, sometimes jass), possibly, owing to an easy manner of game, absence of a musical notation and associations with musicians from Storivillja. Despite the highest skill of many executors, it there was a popular light music without claims for something bolshee, than entertainment is simple. Trumpeter Joe "-шэу" became the main figure novoorleanskogo a jazz; Oliver (1865-1938).
the Jazz walks on a planet
The First jazz record has appeared in 1917 performed by Nika La Rokka (1889-1961). After record in February, 1917 of plays "Livery Stable Blues" and "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step" its orchestra "Original Dixieland Jass Band" has got the world popularity. After some months about new music Europe has learnt also, moreover, the jazz has taken hold of minds even professional classical musicians. Conductor Ernest Ansermet recollects that delight which was caused in it by game of Sydney Beketa (1897-1959) which were going on tour in Europe in 1919г.
In 1917 there was one more significant event in the history of a jazz. Disturbed by that military seamen give to brothels of Storivillja of more time and forces, than combat training, command of the Navy of the USA has achieved closing of pleasure institutions owing to what many musicians remained without work. However, for the best searches of a new place lasted not for long - so, for example, by the steamships plying on Mississipi, vacancies for musicians was enough. Some settled in Chicago which soon became the centre of creative activity were novoorleanskih jazzmen.
In the attention centre
In 20th years a jazz it develops, becomes prompt more expressional. Following novoorleanskoj to tradition, musicians gather in the ensembles acting in constant structure. A special role in it Dzhelli Roll Morton (1890-1941) whom many efforts have put to that its jazz band was the rallied and original collective has played.
Perhaps, development of solo improvisation was the most important innovation 20, it became the major component of a jazz expression. Many musicians have brought the mite, but the outstanding public figure became, certainly, Lui Armstrong (1900-71). It could spend some years To a youth in a shelter for colour homeless children for shooting in a public place. There he has learnt to play a cornet, and soon began to play a professional scene.
He played Any time King Olivera's orchestra in Chicago, but has in the mid-twenties collected the ensemble which was called "Hot Five" and later - "Hot Seven".
It is masterful using rhythmic flexibility of a jazz, Armstrong created unique on force of influence of product. Besides those things which in the mid-twenties he has written down with the groups playing novoorleanskom style, in 1928 the musician has let out some plates with pianist Erlom Hajnsom (1903-83). This music has not left indifferent any listener. In one of plays - "West End Blues" - the solo part so bewitching sounds that, apparently, as if time stiffens.
Besides Armstrong was much and other bright individualities thanks to which the jazz stylistics became more expressional. Sydney Beket preferring a soprano-saxophone more widespread at that time to clarnet was the representative found novoorleanskogo style. In more lyrical, but at all to less expressive manner the great trumpeter and kornetist played Biks Bejderbek (1903-31).
Experiments with the tenor
One more reception, with which help "чтхчфэ№х" soloists of a jazz tried to strengthen expressiveness of the music, consisted in expansion of musical phraseology. In a context of a jazz it meant search of new, more unexpected harmonies, than simple enough traditional chords novoorleanskoj schools.
Koulman Hokins (1904-69) was the Leader of this movement. He played a tenor saxophone - the main tool of any striding orchestra sounding, however, too heavy to be entered in an easy rhythm novoorleanskogo style. In jazz bands used "ьырф°ш§ сЁр=іхт" is more often; the tenor - an alto and a soprano. However Hokins has invented the way of game based on ability of the tenor it is easy to transfer arpedzhirovannye chords, that is quickly to alternate notes instead of playing some notes simultaneously. This technics has opened the richest potential for search of new sounding.
Experimenting a sound of a tenor saxophone in search of the sounding necessary to it, Hokins went on the way, blazed by jazzmen since 90th years of a XIX-th century.
For 20-30th years of the XX-th century persevering search of new forms of the musical self-expression, reflected aspiration of many popular executors to invent own "¶шЁьхээюх" is characteristic; sounding. New tools - for example, shock installation as a funny hybrid of all tools of a striding orchestra began to appear.
But some masters played a jazz the tools not peculiar to this style: Joe Venuti (1903-78) - on a violin, Red Norvo (a sort. 1908) - on a xylophone and vibrofone, and many invented the unique sounding on wind instruments. Such creative search occurred against the tendency to integration of jazz ensembles. With one of the first arranger Fletcher Henderson (1897-1952) has tried to expand traditional tool frameworks. To some musicians, as, for example, "-¦ъѕ" Ellingtonu (1899-1974), supervising in the twenties several orchestras of New York, it was possible to find rather skilful management methods the big orchestras.
The Remarkable talent of Ellingtona consisted not only in its unique abilities of the musical stylist and the executor of solo parts, but also in ability to give to the ensemble unique musical colour. At early stages of the activity it perfectly well used masterful ability of Babbera Majli (1903-32) to vary surdiny, and masterly game on a trombone "КЁшъш" Sam Nantona (1904-46). Within 30th years Ellington developed unique sounding of the orchestra, and in 40 successfully went on tour with it across all America.
In the thirties the important element of a jazz become "сшу-сІэф№" that is the big orchestras possessing volume and polifonichnym a sound. In the musical plan William's ensemble "-рѕэ=р" was the most appreciable collective after an orchestra of Ellingtona; Bejsi (1904-84). Its technics of game and arrangement was perfected in Kansas City where the easy, refined swing was popular. Groups of tools played repeating rhythmomelodic elements ("Ёш¶№") or by turns, or accompanying a solo part.
However orchestras under control of white musicians, as, for example, Benn Goodman's ensemble (1909-86) have commercially appeared more successful. Playing style "ётшэу" white big-bands sometimes adhered to traditional elements of a jazz expression (Benn Goodman), and at times tended to softer variation (Glenn Miller (1904-44)).
"-црчюьрэш " for export
In 30th years the army of adherents of a jazz was huge. Some executors tried to keep the Chicago school of a jazz of the sample of 20th years, others went to master new musical open spaces abroad. For example, Koulman Hokins with 1934 for 1939 worked in Europe where used enormous popularity and has made many records together with the great Belgian guitarist of a Gipsy origin of Dzhango Rejnhardtom, the author of the unique style which had set of followers.
Legendary names of a jazz
By the end of 1930th years the jazz still was considered "ъыѕсэющ" the music which does not have the big commercial potential. Nevertheless, it has generated set of ingenious musicians, whose names are entered in a musical treasury of the XX-th century.
Performances of such great executors as Billi Holidej (1915-59), especially to the accompaniment of musicians of calibre of Leicester of Young, is not only musical masterpiece, but also the pathetic story about a fate colour in the racist racist and segregated American society, capable to touch the impenitent heart.
Not subtly that the love of many musicians and singers to a jazz has made this style the international musical language.