Byron, Shelley and Keats


The passionate poetry Byron, Shelley and Kitc belonging to a romantic direction in the European art, have thrown down an impudent challenge to literary traditions and public foundations.

Byron, Shelley and Kitc - three young English poets experimenting different aspects of romanticism, a new direction in the European art in the beginning of XIX century Their poetry is full of passion, enthusiasm for exotic and supernatural, and is thin characterises human emotions.


George Byron (1788-1824)

"-хтючьюцэю was to understand, when it шёъЁхэхэ" - George Byron's friend, Medical wines wrote. And really, Byron was fenced off from the world by a facade of boredom of high society. To it delivered true pleasure to shock contemporaries. It differed, to put it mildly, excentric behaviour. It had numerous novels. But heart belonged to its own stepsister.

Byron was born in 1788 from unhappy marriage. The father has died, when to the boy was executed three years, and after death of the granduncle to 10-year-old Byron has passed a baronial title. He sincerely loved mother, it - it, but it frequently cruel treatment with the boy, and also its congenital lameness became the reason of vulnerability peculiar to it.

In 1801 lord Byron arrives in school of Harrow where writes the first verses, and four years later - in the Cambridge university. The student it publishes the collection "-х=ѕёшх эрсЁюёъш" though one of friends warns him about excessively sensual maintenance of verses. Byron reluctantly introduces corrective amendments. The collection "Орё№ фюёѕур" has been printed in 1807, but has caused the extremely negative criticism; the reviewer derided Byron's poetry as pretentious. In an impulse of anger Byron has composed poetic satire "…Ёш=рэёъшх срЁф№" in which has sharply responded about creativity of Sauti, Kolridzha and Vordsvorta (later he recognised haste of the judgements). But this product has brought to it popularity.

Byron's Well-known novel with Carolina Lem has taken place in 1812г., having generated weight of a gossip in the London light. But, when Carolina has thrown for the sake of it the husband, Byron has decided that its passionate feeling threatens its independence, and has interrupted their communication.

In 1815 Byron marries the successor of a noble family of Anabelle Milbenk, however all in a year she leaves it. Scandal induces it to leave to Italy. During travel he meets Shelley, and soon they become close friends.

In Italy Byron conducts a dissolute and chaotic way of life. He spends much time in Pisa where again meets Shelley, an outstanding public figure in not numerous English community. But by 1823 Byron is bothered with a life in Italy, and it leaves to Greece where intends to join revolt against a Turk. Greeks warmly accept the well-known English lord, and Byron without the rest devotes itself to their struggle. However initial enthusiasm is quickly replaced by disappointment when it personally faces corruption and political conflicts among insurgents. In 1824 Byron dies of a fever in the city of Missolongi. Byron's feats became a legend, and a name - nominal for the description of the person rebellious and melancholic. Once he has written: "+ыртэр  the life purpose - emotions, sensation of that we exist, let it and brings сюыі".

Byron's Hobby for satire far from romanticism has reached apogee in a poem "-юэ гѕрэ" (1819-24), its interpretations of widely known history about great Spanish serdtseede. Suppressing objections by the humour and a pressure, it reduces all values and the opinions dominating in a society from a pedestal. Though its contempt is directed mainly on ruling class, it does by a subject of a sneer and: to Vessels I heavenly could become,

Kaby has not been weaved by the creator from a dirt,
Blood, bones, passions and other rubbish. And the past? –
To a non-existence to send! Here about the future I am in earnest:
Since morning it is drunk (and that would not began to write –
On a ceiling after all it is hard to stand).
Tax to a rhine wine! - I demand terribly.


Shelley (1792-1822)

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The Son of a rich nobleman from Sussex. Persi Bishi Shelley studied at aristocratic universities Eton and Oxford. The conventions reigning in Oxford, have caused furious reaction in the poet; it gets at once popularity thanks to the frank aversion of a policy and religion. In 1811 it has printed a lampoon "-хюс§юфшьюё=і р=хшчьр" in which declares absence of proofs of existence of God.

For it Shelleys exclude from university. The angered father renounces the son, hoping that deprivation of privileges will return it in naezzhennuju a track. But is not present - the successor of a huge fortune has given up riches for the sake of thought freedom.

It having appeared one in London, 19-year-old Shelley falls in love with 16-year-old Herriet Uestbruk. They secretly leave, get married in 1811, however to settle it anywhere it is not possible. After returning to London Shelley gets acquainted with 17-year-old Mary Uol-stonkraft Godvin, the talented daughter of philosopher-rationalist William Godvina and Mary Uolstonkraft well-known rodonachalnitsy of feminism. First marriage crash is inevitable, Shelley will run together with Mary to Switzerland and even tries to convince Herriet to join them. She refuses, and after two years commits suicide.

With a current of years Shelley more and more endures this misfortune. But its private life remains chaotic: he incurs obligations which not in forces to execute, fastens numerous and to what good not resulting novels. Women find its attractive and are ready to accept as it, and its idealistic views; and Shelley considers such relations as display of the liberated soul of the person and free love. It was really doomed idealist! Shelley wrote: "Лт№! I did not think that a life =ръютр". In "+фюэршёх" its last product written in 1821 on the death of John Keats, there is a strong image:

The Life - only a cathedral, to whose glasses multi-coloured
It allowed to stain in set of fires
Shine of a whiteness which seems to know better,
When the arch counterfeit,
is shattered by death And the one who wishes to live, aspires to it.

Shelley was the person, full anger and passion. When speech came about injustice and an inequality, to it was not equal; however its idealism always remained a little foggy. Nevertheless, it was the great poet-lyric poet, whose creativity breathed accruing feeling of loneliness of the poet and tragic element of a life. Shelley has died in 1822. Leaving under a sail during a storm, it has sunk in the sea near to the Italian coast. He was 29 years old.


Kitc (1795-1821)

John Kitc was more modest origin. At the age of eight years it has lost the father, in fourteen - mother. Китc was the elder son, and his parents have found means and had time to give it a good classical education. It studied Latin, French and history at Enfildsky school where has made friends with the son of the director. Kauden Clark (subsequently itself become by the teacher) though and vosemju for years was more senior a companion, has entered young Keats into the poetry world.

After loss of mother Kitc has left study to care of hotly favourite younger brothers and sister. It willingly took guardianship over them though itself was still absolutely the child.

In 1810 in Edmonton Kitc for five years arrives in pupils to the druggist. At this time he writes about poetry much. In 1815 works in hospital and studies surgery. By this time it has got many friends. Among them there was Shelley and Li Hunt, too the poet, artists of Severn and Hejdon, critic William Hezlitt and essayist Charles Lem. Acquaintances in the literary environment have inspired Keats, and in 21 year he dares to leave medicine for the sake of poetry.

For Keats this decision was uneasy as family cares still prevailed over it. His brother Volume was ill with a consumption, and younger brother George in search of good luck has emigrated to America. It was serious blow for Keatss connected by close family bonds. Probably, Keats's poem "¦эфшьшюэ" was flight from the severe validity in the imagined world of gods and idyll against the fields filled in with a sunlight and the arbours twined greens.

Within all next year Kitc, come back to a bench of Mr. John to plasters, pills and vials with ointments, has been compelled to be reconciled with the anonymous critics sneering over "яюыэ№ь by idiocy of a poem "¦эфшьшюэ". All this time Keats self-denyingly looked after the brother Volume up to his death; during the same time he has got acquainted with Fanni Broun and at once has fallen in love with it. However, without having possibility to offer it of anything except the love, he decides to return to it when becomes the recognised poet.

Probably, there was no more poet, whose formation would pass so quickly. Between September 1818 and August, 1819 Keats has written to the period some the best products - "+шяхЁшюэ" "La Belle Dame sans merci" "-рэѕэ Sacred +уэхёё№" "+фѕ ёюыюті¦" "+фѕ Greek трчх" "+фѕ юёхэш" poems "-рьш " and "¤рфхэшх +шяхЁшюэр".

In its verses and letters sincere heat and bright individuality appeared. Keats was distinguished by amazing intuition and ability to introspection. "-рфх¦ёі that in a greater degree became the Philosopher, and, hence, in smaller - virshujushchim  уэхэъюь". Redundancy of details has given way to reserved brightness of images through which it expressed the sensation of the world. Love strengthened thirst of a life - and at the same time did by its torture. The poet understood all impossibility of a marriage: by the end of it поразительного1819 year it was already mortally sick.

Living at Li Hunt, it has received the letter from Shelley, calling it to Italy. But Keats did not have a confidence in the heart of Shelley's friendly feelings, and for it it had huge value. More than something, he wished to be near to adored Fanni. When one of its letters has got lost, Kitc decides to go in Hempsted to see it. On a threshold of its house he faints, and within a month Fanni and her mother nurse it. Eventually, Keats decides that the trip to Italy which soft climate can cure its illness is necessary for it. In the end

1820 it has arrived to Rome where there was an illness relapse. He has died on February, 23rd, 1821 in Rome where has been buried on a local Protestant cemetery. Fanni Broun mourned over it many long years.

Robert Gittings, Keats's biographer, has told about its poetry: "+= its all other poets are distinguished by amazing sensation of originality of the moment and use of every day vital details in creation яюІчшш". Keats's last word has sounded in a poem "+фр ёюыюті¦" which throws down a challenge of death and confirms a celebration of beauty, the nature and true:

But you, about the Bird, death are not privy, -
Any people with you miloserd.
In night all to the same song sladkoglasnoj
Listened both the proud tsar, and pity smerd;
In sad heart of Rufi, at heavy o'clock,
When in foreign fields she went,
All the same song flew pathetically, -
That song that time and again
Flew in shutters of a secret window
Over the sea gloomy in the country zabvennoj.