Rembrandt and the Dutch painting


the Energetic, solid and prosperous Dutch society of a XVII-th century has demanded and has created set of picturesque images of associates of the person of subjects and scenes of its everyday life. The greatest artist of the Netherlands Rembrandt became the creator of deeper and more expressive art.

In a XVII-th century the Dutch nation only began the history. In 1570 all provinces of the so-called Bottom Earths (territories of the modern Netherlands and Belgium) have risen against the Spanish king Phillip II. Spaniards have won again southern provinces which remained Catholic, but by 1609 northern seven earths all the same have overcome resistance and independence have achieved. The new state named Incorporated Provinces, or the Netherlands, became republic and has quickly turned to powerful power. Its force was based on the infinite riches which have been saved up by seafarers, merchants and bigwigs, whose sound houses erected to money, hammered together on trade in spices from the East Indies, began to grow as mushrooms along channels of Amsterdam and other Dutch cities. As consequence, not royal court yard and not magnificent aristocracy, and city merchant class, or the burghers was the basic motive power of the Dutch society, - the class easier and is more impractical in the relation to a life. At certain tolerance of Dutches the Protestantism in the severe form of the Calvinist doctrine was prevailing religion.


Ordinary realism

All told has caused resolute rupture of the Dutch art with stylistics and the maintenance of art of former epoch. For example, Calvinists considered as a sin an ornament of houses of worship and consequently in the Netherlands there was no demand for magnificent wall and ceiling lists, for intricate altars or for the majestic sculptures inherent in Catholic churches. Besides, the state of dealers and businessmen not very much required in scale and magnificent "фтюЁчют№§" cloths. The simple life of the Dutch burghers gave rise to other, unpretentious and earthed tastes.

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Such outlook has pushed the Dutch artists to a new kind of graphic realism which was showed in all picturesque genres, - portraits, interiors, landscapes, still-lifes. Avoiding unusual and deliberate, masters of a brush with genuine love and original professionalism represented the most daily, thereby proving that very simple subjects and the phenomena can inspire on creation of the fine. As both artists, and their customers equally looked at a life and followed the same principles, the fashion on pictures has extended among all social classes and has generated enormous demand for the cloths written in improbable for those times quantities. Not surprisingly, what exactly XVII century could become "чюыю=№ь веком" the Dutch art. Hardly there is other country where for so short period art would be enriched with such quantity of creations of remarkable painters.

The Set of pictures was written to order. The statement of the artist as the master of certain genres or plots was one of ways of maintenance of regular sales of the products. Such specialisation became characteristic property of the Dutch fine arts. For example, the Bill van der Velde wrote exclusively marines - sea landscapes with the image of the ships. The bill of Klas Heda - only still-lifes (compositions from lifeless subjects), and Jan van Gojen - rural landscapes. Other artists painted portrait, genre scenes, house and church interiors, flowers, animals, cheerful traktirnye a walk or the townspeople who are amused with game in snowballs or skating.


France Hals

the First great painter of the independent Netherlands France Hals (was born about 1580, has died in 1666) was the master of a group portrait. Was able, giving represented various poses, and to a plot - vitality and pleasure, Hals has created special style: the impression is made that it has caught the person in movement or as the photographer, has stopped an instant and has snatched out someone's fleeting gesture. By the way, the life of this portraitist testifies to variability of success and glory among the Dutch artists - last years lives of Hals has spent in a shelter for poor men.


Rembrandt

Rembrandt Harmens van Rhine (1606-69) many is recognised as the greatest European artist of all times, but its professional life, as well as at Halsa, was a chain of launches and falling. Till forty years all in it was cloudless. The son of the miller from Leiden - the second-large city of the Netherlands of that time - has got over to Amsterdam and went from success to success, having created magnificent, at once a recognised group portrait "ЛЁю to anatomy at the doctor К¦ыіяр" aged only 26 years. On the painter the river orders for historical cloths and krupnorazmernye portraits have poured down, and the marriage on the girl from rich family has strengthened its position in a society. The artist moves in the huge house to Breestrat where in 1642 on a crest of financial success the most known group portrait "-юёэющ фючюЁ" paints; In this picture city combatants are represented not grandly sitting within four walls, and cheerfully fallen out on brisk street. Moreover, the artist has torn with tradition of the equal image of all posing, than, as far as it is known, has offended nobody – customers or forked up depending on where and in their what size have represented, or at once have understood that have got on a picture to which can become a masterpiece.


Monetary difficulties

Rembrandt Saskija's wife has the same year died. According to its will, the artist had no right to dispose of its capital, money got to elder son Titusu on reaching it of majority. Such care sostavitelnitsy confirms legends about Rembrandt's amazing fellow citizens vykrikivaniem of amazingly high prices at auctions of curiosities and antiques extravagant expenditure.

Despite some reduction of popularity of Rembrandt, it always had many clients so it is possible to explain so fast thawing of its capitals excessive expenses. Besides, under certificates of contemporaries, Rembrandt obstinately arrived in own way, for example, wrote not in demand iconographic scenes. Eventually, in 1656 it has gone bankrupt, the huge house has been sold for debts, and the artist could move to the rented apartment on a village fence of Amsterdam where the life was much cheaper.

Near to the artist there was his son Titus and the very young servant Hendrike Stoffels, which vein with Rembrandt after death of the wife and has given birth to it to the daughter. Officially Titus and Hendrike appeared Rembrandt's employers - the similar legal trick meant that creations of the master belong to them and cannot be withdrawn its creditors. This fact speaks well for that the family lived in peace and friendship and that to Rembrandt, is already far not to the rich man, have been provided good leaving and conditions for creation. The higher achievements of the late period of its creativity are such works filled with human feelings, as "Ђр kov, blessing sons Ђюёш¶р" "‡тЁхщё kaja эхтхё=р" and "-ючтЁрЁхэшх lascivious ё№эр". Contrary to financial difficulties, Rembrandt could live happily in a new dwelling, if not two personal tragedies which have saddened last years of a life of the master. Devoted Hendrike has died in 1663, and Titus - in 1669, soon then, some months later, have died Rembrandt, old, sick and got tired of a life.


life Reproduction

Rembrandt has succeeded not only in painting and drawing, but also in the engraving technics of a black-and-white etching. Unlike the majority of the Dutch artists of the epoch, he always refused specialisation in one genre or on one plot and has written great variety of individual and group portraits, self-portraits, bible, mythological and historical cloths, and in the last years of life when he lived more close to village, - a quantity of landscapes. However, Rembrandt first of all pictured the person - subjects as its transcendental objects interested seldom. In the beginning of a creative way many of its works represent the historical pictures executed in the Italian manner, with sharp contrasts of light and a shade (so-called kjaroskuro) for the sake of creation of drama effect. In due course the artist aspires to transfer not so much action of the person, how many its feelings and thoughts more and more, even the elementary vital scenes are filled muffled, but a genuine emotional pressure. Rembrandtovy bible patriarchs and heroines of myths at all idealizirovany are usual men and women, - or neighbours-Jews with whom the artist was amicable, or strong a body and spirit Dutches. The artist again and again writes the same people - Saskiju, Hendrike, Titusa as if obstinately trying to discover their truthful essence. But more often the artist writes itself.


Self-portraits

As it is surprising, till our time has remained more Rembrandt's 90 self-portraits. Any other artist of that time has not created anything similar - probably because on painting looked as at skill, due to satisfy customers and to bring earnings umeltsu, and on demand self-portraits did not exist, as was not during that time and present interest to the person and character of the artist as creator. As a matter of fact, Rembrandt has outstripped the time, persistently studying itself and representing that in a smart dress, in house rags, radiating health, the ailing. The artist did not try to embellish plain, even rude lines of the person or to hide relentless influence of time and weariness: its self-portraits develop in unique zhivopisanie lives, they, like other pictures of the artist, show not only external shape displayed, but also its private world, his soul condition.

the Great epoch for the Dutch art in time almost has completely coincided in the course of time Rembrandt's (1606-69) lives, but also to separate younger contemporaries of the great Amsterdamer the place in the history of arts has been prepared. Peter de Hoh (1629-84) and Jan Vermeer (1632-75) worked in small town as Delfte, studying a play of light indoors, they have changed modest Dutch interiors in radiating rest and charm genre scenes. Vermeer, nowadays more glorified from a two, veins also has died imperceptible, now it is known only four ten its works. In the most well-known pictures of Vermeera women behind homework or behind playing music in the rooms sated with light are represented. The pacified concentration of images, light tone and deceptive simplicity of a plot give to works of the painter a rare subtlety and poetry.


Landscape painting

Mejndert Hobbema (1638-1709) and Jacob van Rejsdal (apprx. 1628-82) were the most outstanding representatives of the Dutch landscape. Before their arrival to art the majority of artists remained adherents of deeply taken roots national traditions and wrote peace rural kinds with poseljanami, cows and mills.

Hobbema basically continued such tradition, but its friend and teacher Rejsdal became on a new path. On its cloths the nature appears as not up to the end subdued by the person, majestic heavens are terribly frowned by clouds, and over the earth something mysteriously hangs incomprehensible. The romantic relation of Rejsdalja to the nature has anticipated (and has inspired) the subsequent generations of artists, both in Holland, and behind its limits - the artists, started to create in hundred and more years after its death.

Upon termination of a XVII-th century new in the Dutch fine arts became less though in the Netherlands still there were the good artists following affirmed national traditions. This tradition and a picturesque heritage of the Dutch masters have influenced history of art of the Western world as a whole. Daily and comprehension of that art it is possible to create comprehension of beauty on the basis of ordinary, during all subsequent times incessantly enriched the western culture.