William Vordsvorta and Semjuela Kalridzha whom contemporaries united under a name "яюІ=№ lake °ъюы№" made related a keen interest to the nature though it is difficult to imagine two more unlike people.
William Vordsvorta's Friendship and Semjuela Kolridzha which have met in 1795, - one of the most known in the history of English poetry. These two persons were extremely unlike against each other, but both loved Lake-land, area in the north of England where long walked together, revelling in terrible beauty of the nature. Mutual influence of poets was rather short, but on the peak has generated the collection of world famous ballads which they have together conceived and have published.
William Vordsvort was born in Kokermaute, on Lake-land border, on April, 7th, 1770. His father served at a rich excentric nobleman. Vordsvort since the childhood adored the nature. Once, during one of lonely walks, it has come across lake and a small village of Grasmir. The poet through all life has carried by the first impression of their beauty. "-ръюх the happiness would be to live чфхёі!" In 1799 Vordsvord has moved in Grasmir and has lived there the life rest.
In 1778 Vordsvortu was only eight years when his mother has died, and in 13 it has lost the father. Together with brothers and sisters it has moved to live to parents of mother. To William not to liking there was a strict atmosphere in the house of the grandmother and the grandfather. And he has sighed with simplification when it together with brothers have sent in school.
Despite chaotic education, a life of all brothers has developed successfully. William with one of brothers have finished Cambridge, one more brother became the seaman, and the senior - the lawyer. Sister Doroti remained in Lake-land together with William. It always was its favourite brother, they were on friendly terms all life. Having ended university, William has gone to London to taste a capital life. The ardent admirer of ideals of the French revolution, it has crossed La Manche to see all the eyes. Terror has dispelled its illusions. Having endured wreck of hopes, it has come back home and has located in Somerset. Some years later, in 1802, it married Mary Hatchinson who has given birth to it to five children.
Love to the nature
Vordsvort adored the nature and has devoted to native landscapes and landscapes set of poems. Unlike Kolridzha, the nature was for it the main source of inspiration. Its products with 1798 for 1807 considerably differ on a plot, style and mood from all written earlier and, undoubtedly, have changed the person of English poetry.
The Life and creativity of Vordsvorta inseparably linked, in many poems it transfers impressions of the childhood and a youth. In the outstanding poem "¤Ёхы¦фш " it describes formation of own consciousness, deep feeling occurrence to the nature.
Unlike epic poems where fights were described, love experiences and supernatural, the poet becomes the protagonist of poems of Vordsvorta. Such new, personal approach was revolution in the poetic world. Vordsvort became the first poet who has considered the personal experience and an internal life as a theme, worthy poetry.
"¤Ёхы¦фш " is a story of the poet about the childhood, lonely walks, sensation of relationship with the nature, feelings that it is brought up not only beauty, but also fear. The poet recollects years of study in Cambridge, hobby for mathematics, walks in the Alpes and travel across the France captured by revolution. Further he speaks about disappointment and painful overcoming of the despair which has overflowed it.
Though Vordsvort has finished work on a poem in 1805, it has been printed only after his death. "¤Ёхы¦фш " till now it is considered one of the best poems in the English literature.
Semjuel Taylor Kolridzh
Semjuel Taylor Kolridzh was the son of the priest. He was born in the south of England, in Devon, on October, 21st, 1772, most younger of desjateryh children in a family, and has got education in London and Cambridge. Kolridzha had a powerful intelligence, but weak character, it very much depended on friendship and support of associates. Perhaps, its meeting and friendship with Robert Sauti became the most important event for all years of the doctrine in Cambridge. Kolridzh so described the relations with Sauti and Vordsvortom: "КЁш the person, but one фѕ°р". Some consider Sauti as the third poet "ючхЁэющ °ъюы№". However, he too lived in Lake-land and often went with Vordsvortom and Kolridzhem on their pedestrian walks.
Inconstancy of character
Zhizn Kolridzha was not monotonous. He wrote for newspapers, read sermons and lectures and even wished to publish own newspaper, but its inability to concentrate on something one and inconstancy of character should become serious hindrances in this business. He often borrowed and should.
In 1795, in the same year when it has met Vordsvortom, Kolridzh married Sare Briker, Robert Sauti's girlfriend. A year later at them the first-born was born. First Kolridzh adored children, especially elder son Hartli. But pleasures of paternity have quickly bored it, and it has returned to that way of life which conducted before marriage. It often went abroad and met people as whom considered useful to expansion of the outlook. Besides, it has conceived a liking for opium.
Fortunately, Kolridzha had very good friends. At it the call of duty, seemingly, was absent. Its marriage has broken up, children became it strangers. Because of the unbalance it depended on opium more and more.
The Collection of the verses which have left in 1798, Vordsvort and Kolridzh have created together. This book became most known of all their joint creativity. How they in general could work together, remains till now a riddle. They were absolutely different in character and temperament. Vordsvort loved rural rest, fresh air, long walks during which time he composed verses. Kolridzh, on the contrary, was the scientist, zapojnym knigocheem and the expert on German philosophy. It had uncommon abilities, but very difficult character. Both attentively analyzed the experiences and admired terrible force of the nature.
the Legend on Old Morehode
Kolridzha always involved all romantic and supernatural, these themes became plots of its poems more often. It always first of all was occupied with the person, he often addressed to own nature. Vordsvorta wordly plots - scenes from an everyday life more interested. But it had a rich imagination thanks to which the ordinary disappeared, and the reader could look at habitual things a new view. Most known of "-шЁшёхёъш§ срыырф" Kolridzha, "Рърчрэшх about Old ¦юЁх§юфх" describes mystical adventures during round-the-world travel about which the old seaman tells to one of visitors on wedding. In Antarctic its ship has lost the way among icebergs. There was suddenly an albatross and has specified them a way to safe waters, but the seaman for no reason at all kills a bird. For this senseless crime against the nature it is punished by terrible adventures.
By the ship water comes to an end, and one after another all sailors die, and the ill-starred hero sees, how their souls leave a body. In live there is it one. Through any time the seaman comes back home. But the eremite has imposed on it epitimju - he is doomed to wander till the end of days on the world and to tell the story.
For the time the poem was simply stunning, and even today it amazes with the mysteriousness, an innuendo and power. It is similar to the old ballad told by the poet with unrestrained and freakish imagination. In it the reality and supernatural has mixed up, it is penetrated by spirit of love and kindness which and it is possible to name morals of this poem. Thomas Vulf, the American novelist of 30th years of the XX-th century, wrote: "Ї I do not consider that "Рърчрэшх about Old ¦юЁх§юфх" was for Kolridzha flight from the validity. I think, it and was its validity. I am assured that he has made travel by that ship, all has experienced and яхЁхцшы".
Vklad Vordsvorta in the collection absolutely other. "¦рщъы" is a history of the shepherd having hard time, history about poverty, courage and the sufferings, told by language, on which "уютюЁ = in a life ы¦фш". Vordsvort dreamt to leave from an artificial, far-fetched poetic diction of a XVIII-th century and to return to simple words and simple plots. In "+сср=ё=тх Кшэ=хЁэ" has found expression other, more personal aspect of its creativity. In this poem the poet describes the returning in abbey where was not five years, and, fascinated its beauty, understands, how strongly it has changed for these years. In a youth he perceived the nature as the physical phenomenon - admired trees, mountains, rocks and streams. Now its perception of the nature has gone deep thanks to dialogue with people, its understanding became more thin and is deeper:
Here again I have learnt to understand
Sad, but a delightful song
The cleanest Humanity that before,
In far my youth, did not know...
Speaking about the revolution made in poetry by Vordsvortom and Kolridzhem, it is necessary to recollect sister Vordsvorta Doroti. She lived with the brother under one roof even after its marriage, often accompanied poets on walks. It divided their passion to the nature, wrote notes which both used in the further work. This observant and sensitive woman often served Vordsvortu as eyes and ears.
In the diary from April, 15th, 1802 it describes the episode which has inspired Vordsvorta on its well-known "Ї one went in fields яѕё=№§" a poem on a charm of yellow narcissuses. She writes: "-юуфр we walked in wood behind Gaubarroussky park have noticed at water some yellow narcissuses. We have decided that seeds were brought here by water, but have then met even more and more colours - along water, under trees, bright yellow islets... They grew among mossy stones... Some have put the gentle heads on stones... The others - shook, shook, danced... They so pleased heart, were such cheerful, quivering, шчьхэёшт№ьш..."
Vordsvort so has described this episode in a poem:
I went one in fields empty,
As tuchka in the sky clear,
Suddenly a plenty of narcissuses gold
Has flashed a carpet fine;
In a shade of birches, at pure waters,
Under a wind drive a round dance...
He has written these lines in two years after they with Doroti have met narcissuses, and Doroti has described the impressions in a diary. Its notes have inspired Vordsvorta, thanking it the poet in all details has recreated a picture before the mind. However interpretation of this episode belongs entirely to it. Its this personal perception.
Doroti Vordsvort, undoubtedly, was a source of inspiration not only for the brother, but also for Kolridzha. With it they conducted long conversations, she read it the verses, it found qualities which did not meet at one other woman in it.
Writers William Hezlitt (1778-1830) and Thomas De Kuinsi (1785-1859) were contemporaries of poets "ючхЁэющ °ъюы№" and wrote about them much. Hezlitt in an essay "¦юх acquaintance with яюІ=рьш" and De of Quincy in "-юёяюьшэрэш § about poets lake °ъюы№" recollect, what pleasure received from conversations with Kolridzhem.
Vordsvort has endured all friends. On change to its political radicalism conservatism has in the course of time come, its refusal to support any was radical undertakings infuriated young poets. After Robert Sauti's death in 1843 to Vordsvortu has passed its rank of the poet-winner though by then to it 73 years were executed and he practically wrote nothing. The poet has died in 1850.