Now by means of the computer one musician can take the sounds made by the whole orchestra, however anything so does not bewitch, as an orchestra from hundred the musicians harmoniously executing "цштѕ¦" music.
Ancient Greeks a word "юЁ§хё=Ёр" designated a platform before a scene on which musicians and dancers acted. Now an orchestra name the big group of the musicians executing music on string, and also on copper and wooden wind instruments with support of group shock. As a rule, one theme is played not by one musician, and a little. For example, the modern orchestra can total from 70 to 100 participants and, hence, during a concert is capable as to execute most complicated of musical forms - the symphony, - and to accompany the soloist.
Occurrence of new tools
At the beginning of an opera genre, in Italy of a XVII-th century, composers used any tools available in those days for singing support. Approximately since second half XVIII century the structure of orchestras and groups of tools entering into it was ordered.
Many earlier popular tools (in particular, viola) have disappeared from orchestras, having given way new - such, as, for example, a clarnet. Thus skill of manufacturers constantly raised, quality of tools improved, the technician of execution and, accordingly, all richer unique sounding of each of them became more various. Composers have rather quickly learnt to decorate a musical fabric of the products by easy trembling of melodies for a flute or languid buzz of a bassoon, giving to music additional beauty and an emotionality.
To the XIX-th century beginning thanks to Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven art of connection of sounds of separate tools in complete musical cloths has been brought to perfection, and the structure of a symphonic orchestra was defined to the full. Throughout all XIX century tools practically did not vary, but the quantity of musicians (and, first of all, violinists) grew in an orchestra at the expense of increase in number necessary for execution of music of tools. Such changes were possible thanks to support of governors of that time and the patrons of art creating own orchestras at the court yard and estates and supporting composers.
In due course orchestras became more also because should play more loudly, - that they were heard not by a handful "яЁшёрё=э№§ to high шёъѕёё=тѕ" settled down in a small drawing room of noble family, and the public who has filled a huge concert hall, like world famous Albert-hall in London, and paid money for tickets. In the XX-th century composers began to write again music for small orchestras, nevertheless, the symphonic orchestra of our days still represents some tens the musicians playing tools of four groups - on string, wooden wind instruments, copper wind and shock.
In an orchestra most of all string, they make two thirds of all tools. Among string violins - them usually thirty numerically prevail, and even it is more. Violins share on the first violins and the second violins. Violins, altos, violoncellos and contrabasses are a basis of a symphonic orchestra, and their game - a basis of executed music. The main figure in such orchestra - the musician playing the first violin, it is listened by all the others, it conducts behind itself(himself) all orchestra. Sounds are taken from string tools by means of bows or shchipkami, and then enriched, resounding from wooden cases of tools. The stringed technics of game will be applied more often, than shchipkovaja, designated by the Italian word "яшччшър=ю" (literally, "ѕЁшяэѕ=№щ") And the employee for creation of special musical effect. Driving on strings a bow, the musician presses their fingers of the left hand, regulating height and extent of sounds. Among string independently there is a harp - shchipkovyj the tool without the resounding case.
Masters of solo game
the Violin and a violoncello not only conduct the basic parties in the majority of symphonic products, but also often are the soloist. Their surprising sounding similar to a human voice speaks possibility long to hold one note, strengthening or weakening tone. Violinists of Jegudi Menuhin and Nigel Kennedy have won loud glory, acting worldwide with leaders orekstrami with Beethoven's violin concert, "-Ёхьхэрьш уюфр" Vivaldi and other classical repertoire. Among outstanding executors of music for a violoncello it is necessary to name such recognised virtuosos, as Pablo Kasals, Jacqueline Djupre and Mstislav Rostropovich.
Wind instruments (which name speaks for itself) share on two groups - wooden and copper. Till recent times the first really produced from a tree, and the second - from metal. Business now is a little differently: flutes have metal details, and to manufacturing of clarnets is applied ebonit - a product of vulcanization of rubber. However, despite these innovations, both the flute, and a clarnet remain wooden wind instruments.
Playing a wooden wind instrument, the musician sings various notes, closing or opening apertures on its trunk directly fingers or by means of special valves. Air column which vibration generates musical sounds is thus extended or shortened. From a usual flute and a flute-pikkolo sounds are taken by inflation of a current of air directly in dultse the tool, and other wooden wind instruments have thin uvulas from metal or the organic materials, vibrating under the influence of air blown by the musician.
Wooden wind instruments
Wooden wind instruments are known since the most ancient times; what only forms and the sizes they happened! Nevertheless, all wooden wind instruments which have entered into an orchestra, except for a flute, have been invented late enough - in XVII and XVIII centuries. Orchestras for which wrote music Mozart and Beethoven, included only eight wooden wind - two flutes, two clarnets, two oboes and two bassoons.
Later, in a XIX-th century, additional wooden wind instruments have been entered into a symphonic orchestra - for its more expressive sounding. It is a flute-pikkolo playing above a usual flute, the English small horn reminding an oboe, but possessing the register more low, and also a bass clarinet and kontrafagot, sounding more low, than, accordingly, a usual clarnet and a bassoon.
Orchestral copper the sounding transfers force, delight, pleasure of a victory more often. These tools cause at once associations with military feats and hunting. In essence, French horns, pipes, trombones and tubas are metal tubes with mouthpieces in the form of a cup or in the form of a funnel, the lips of the musician-duhovika, the above taken notes are more densely compressed. Throughout centuries such technics of game limited a range of the notes taken from copper tools; then on them there were the valves which have allowed musicians to regulate height of a sound. Among copper independently there is a trombone: instead of valves it is equipped by a mobile side scene. Quality of sounding of copper tools also depends on width and the form (cylindrical or conic) their cases and bells which leave musical sounds.
The Fourth group of tools in an orchestra - shock. The most widespread percussion instrument - a drum, it is familiar to all people, under its sounds long since danced and marched.
In an orchestra the most difficult percussion instrument are litavry, representing hollow kotloobraznye the cases fitted by leather membranes. The timpanist regulates a tension of a membrane a special pedal, reconstructing the tool in the course of game.
Similar to a wheel and from two parties fitted by a skin, the big bass drum is easier litavr, but its heavy crashing sound makes strong impression. A small drum carried on one side earlier, and soldiers measured out the peace under its fight. To shock cymbals, triangles, tambourines, gongs, xylophones, castanets and hand bells also concern.
Usually the piano is not included into orchestra structure, but for it wrote and many composers write music. As the solo tool of a piano competes to a violin - as on degree of popularity among listeners and executors, and from the point of view of prestige. Composers Beethoven, Chopin and Sheet simultaneously were outstanding pianists. Tens pianists have become history of music as fine interpreters of classics. At the time of when there were no players and tape recorders, fans of music got acquainted with orchestral products, playing and listening at home to their piano arrangements.
Up to a XVIII-th century the harpsichord was the basic keyboard tool. By pressing harpsichord keys plektr pinched and forced to sound its strings. The piano which have appeared in the beginning of a XIX-th century, operated by the same principle, but with one important difference: its strings sounded under blows of the hammers upholstered with felt. Thanks to this technics of extraction of sounds, and also the pedals extending sounding notes and doing them zvonche or more deafly, the piano has got the expressive possibilities much more surpassing possibilities of a harpsichord. So a piano possessing an extensive range and allowing smoothly to pass from a sound to a sound, has gradually superseded a harpsichord.