Mute cinema


After the invention "фтшцѕЁш§ё  ърЁ=шэ" the art of the film has quickly won popularity. Even in "эхьюь" a variant it everywhere collected full auditoriums, bringing the movie stars an international recognition.

Actually any pictures at cinema not dvizhutsja. Any film consists of thousand "эхяюфтшцэ№§" shots which with invariable speed flash before eyes of the spectator. Each image is kept in a brain still any instant after it has actually disappeared. And if to it on change another only a little changed the gleam between them remains not noticed immediately comes, and all shots merge in uniform continuous movement. In a XIX-th century on a principle of this "шэхЁчшш visual тюёяЁш =ш " the set of toys has been created, but to apply it to film creation was where more difficult. The first pictures have appeared in 1830th years, however the film became possible only with the advent of the chamber, capable to remove movement in the form of shots replaced with constant speed, and the device projecting shot scenes on the screen with the same constant speed.

After tens years of improvements in laboratories of well-known American inventor Thomas Alvy Edison the camera and the special viewing device which has received the name kinetografa have been created.


a cinema Birth

In kinetografe which has been exposed for the first time in New York (1894), the spectator had to look in a small eyepiece. One year later two Frenchmen, brothers of Ogjust and Lui Ljumer, have presented to public the sinematograf, named a new art form. Ljumer made brothers "цшт№х" pictures of every day events have literally shaken the first spectators. Some more years of cinema for many remain a wonder which showed at fairs and in music halls.

Approximately since 1900 cinematographers began to understand that the cinema is not reduced to documentary fixation of events and opens broad lands for creativity, allowing to tell the spectator the whole stories. Frenchman George Meles, whose well-known film "¤ѕ=х°хё=тшх on -ѕэѕ" was the trailblazer in this business; (1902) has opened the richest potential of a movie camera in creation of every possible tricks and special effects. In film realism development not smaller value belongs to a film "…юыі°юх a robbery яюхчфр" S.Portera's (1903) Edvina where to pressure strengthening for the first time has been applied "ярЁрыыхыіэ№щ ьюэ=рц" - alternate display of two occurring in at one time events.

By 1910 in Europe and America thousand cinemas operate already. But rather big business of cinema became after 1912 when the first feature films were issued. Lasting kind hour and more (instead of former 15-16 minutes), they opened open space for more scale statements. The Italians who have let out in 1912 a film "-рью уЁ фх°ш".

became pioneers in such cinema

David Uork Griffit

Films "рюцфхэшх эрчшш" (1915) and "-х=хЁяшьюё=і" (1916), without conceding the Italian epic insurgents in staginess, far surpassed them in art advantages. The first recognised genius of a cinema American D.U.Griffit was their director.

Doing difficult pictures on serious themes, Griffit with unsurpassed skill applied parallel installation, shot one scene several chambers from different points and freely moved the chamber after action. Films of Griffita with their extraordinary influence on the spectator have shown that the cinema is the mighty political and moral force, capable to interfere with difficult social problems. So, in "рюцфхэшш эрчшш" the racist sights of the director which caused sharp contradictions in a society and has become by the reason of an interdiction of this film in several states of the USA were showed.

By then the American film industry already left East coast and got over to Hollywood, the State of California where the climate allowed to conduct all year long shootings without big (first) expenses. Soon dominant positions in film business have grasped not how many large studios, in particular "МэштхЁёры яшъёхЁё" and "ЛюЁэхЁ сЁрчхЁё". The First World War has paralysed the European film industry, having given to Hollywood chance to be pulled out forward and to win the spectator almost all over the world.

All films then were "эхь№ьш" as yet there was no effective way to combine on a film of a remark of actors with their actions. On the screen there was explanatory caption, and the session usually went to the accompaniment of the pianist (ballroom pianist).


Arrival of sound cinema

Despite all riches of visual receptions, mute cinema remains too slow in development of a plot and simplified in the characteristic of characters. Therefore almost right after a film exit "¤хтхч фцрчр" (1927) with the synchronised music and dialogues there has come the epoch end "-хышъюую эхьюую". The century of sound cinema has begun.