Renaissance Music, like the fine arts and the literature, has come back to values of an ancient art. It not only charmed hearing, but also rendered spiritual and emotional influence on listeners.
The Renaissance of art and a science in XIV-XVI was centuries an epoch of the great changes which have marked transition from a medieval way of life to the present.
The Composition and music execution during this period have taken on special significance. The humanists studying ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, declared a music writing useful and noble employment. Was considered that each child should learn to sing and seize game on musical instruments. For the sake of it eminent families accepted in the houses of musicians that those gave lessons to their children and entertained visitors.
In XVI century there were new musical instruments. The greatest popularity was got by those from them, game on which was given to fans of music easily and simply, without demanding special skills.
The Most widespread became violy and related to them shchipkovye. Viola became the predecessor of a violin, and to play it it was simple thanks to frets (to wooden strips across a signature stamp), helping to sing the necessary notes. The sound violy was silent, but well sounded in small halls. To the accompaniment of one more ladovogo shchipkovogo the tool - lutes - sang, as now to the guitar.
At that time many liked to play a block flute, flutes and small horns. The most difficult music was written for just created harpsichord, verdzhinela (the English harpsichord, different in the small sizes) and body. Thus musicians did not forget to compose and music is easier, not demanding high performing skills. For the same time changes in the musical letter had: on change to heavy wooden printing blocks the mobile metal letters invented by Italian Ottaviano Petruchchi have come. The published pieces of music quickly were bought up, more and more people began to join music.
New tools, printing of notes and wide popularity of music promoted development of chamber music. As appears from its name, it intended for sounding in small halls before not numerous audience. Executors was a little, vocal performances as singing art during that time has been developed much more, than playing music prevailed. Besides, humanists asserted that the listener most strongly influences "ёѕфхёэ№щ ёяырт" two arts - music and poetry. So, in France as the genre was allocated a chanson (a many-voiced song), and in Italy - a madrigal.
Chansons and madrigals
Chansons of those years were executed in some voices on touching verses with a wide thematic range - from a raised theme of love to a daily rural life. Composers composed to verses very much plain songs. Subsequently from this tradition the madrigal - product for 4 or 5 voices on free poetic subjects was born.
Later, in XVI century, composers have come to a conclusion that the madrigal has not enough depth and forces of sounding to which always aspired in the Ancient Greece and Rome, and have started to revive the antique musical sizes. Thus sharp change of fast and smooth rates reflected changes of mood and an emotional condition.
Thus, music became "цштюяшёр=і ёыютр" and to reflect feelings. For example, ascending tone could mean the top (elation), descending - a valley (vale of tears), slow rate - grief, acceleration of rate and pleasant on hearing harmonious melodies - happiness, and intentionally long and sharp discord designated a grief and suffering. In earlier music symmetry and coordination prevailed. Now in its basis lay mnogozvuchie and the contrast, reflecting rich private world of the person. Music became deeper, it has got personal character.
Celebrations and festivals were a Renaissance distinctive feature. People of that epoch marked all - from days sacred before summer time arrival. During street processions musicians and singers from the ornated stage on wheels read ballads, executed the most complicated madrigals, played drama representations. Public with special impatience waited "цшт№§ ърЁ=шэ" with music underneath and scenery in the form of a mechanical cloud from which the deity provided by the scenario went down.
At the same time, the most majestic music was composed for church. To present measures choruses were not too great - from 20 to 30 persons, but their voices amplified sounding of orchestras of trombones entered into structure and pipes-cornets, and for the big holidays (for example, Christmas) singers collected with all okrugi in one enormous chorus. Only Catholic church considered that music should be simple and clear and consequently held up as an example Giovanni Palestriny's writing short products on spiritual texts sacral music. It is necessary to notice that later the maestro has got under influence expressive and mighty "эютющ" music also began to write the monumental and colourful products demanding considerable skills of choral singing.
In the beginning of XVI century the majority of known composers came from Northern Europe, but in the end of century the first violin Italians have begun to sound. Young musicians from many countries came for study to Italy. English musicians studied the Italian madrigal and imitated it. Composers of Tallis and Doulend wrote both difficult church music, and plain songs for one voice. Music has ceased to be accurately calculated and strictly spiritual. It got emotional, expressive and brightly individual character. Music has started talking to people - and people understood its language.