the XX-th century was marked by revolutionary changes in a sculpture and painting. A great variety of new directions, styles, subjects and materials has presented mankind with infinite riches of new surprising creations.
Since the Italian Renaissance prior to the beginning of the XX-th century from sculptors creation more or less exact (let sometimes sentimental or idealised) expected images of the real world. Only extremely seldom the sculpture became the form of self-expression of the person of the master. The sculptor worked, as a rule, in a stone, clay or bronze.
In the XX-th century has burst amazingly sharp and prompt rupture with old traditions. It was designated by a delicate hint already in creativity of the greatest sculptor of the end of a XIX-th century of Ogjusta Rodin. Rodin, with its magnificent vision of beauty and internal energy of the person, still can be considered traditsionalistom. However and in its products it is possible to notice typically modernist contrasts of the invoice and light effects. And still those sweeping changes which the XX-th centuries in the beginning were brought with itself by the movement which has arisen in France of a cubism, have taken public by surprise. Leaders of a cubism - Pablo Picasso and its friend George Brak - revolutionised art, dismantling the subject world (cafe, a guitar, the person) and collecting it anew, frequently in the form of a set of geometrical elements. The key idea of a modernism - autonomy of art here originates. From former mirror display of a reality the work of art has turned to absolutely new reality, nothing obliged to the world surrounding it.
Having arisen in painting, the cubism as a current has soon grasped also a sculpture. Picasso has started to create kubistskie sculptural compositions since 1909, and on its stops variety of outstanding sculptors, for example, Jacque Lipshits (1891-1973) has followed. The motley group of new schools, including futurism, constructivism and dadaizm has immediately taken a great interest in a cubism, 1914-18 prospering to I world war Then have arisen also two powerful, though at first sight sharply not similar among themselves influences on a modern sculpture - art of a primitive thing and functional elegance of modern industrial design.
In the beginning of 1900th years Europeans have started to comprehend beauty and power of art of other cultures, especially art carving of tribes of Africa and Ocenia. Especially powerful influence of art of a primitive thing was tested by American Jacob Epstajn (1880-1959). It has located in Great Britain, where, since 1908 and still for a long time upon termination of II world war, it "ѕЁюфышт№х" and "эхяЁшё=ющэ№х" creations skandalizirovali public.
Primitiveness has led many masters to simplification of forms and the increasing rapprochement with pure abstraction without loss of a certain higher sense. Jean Arp (1887-1966), to whose ideally ironed stone sculptures was that, is faster similar on huge galechnik, organic charm is inherent. Romanian Konstantin Brynkushi (1876-1957) created bronze sculptures of type of the well-known series "¤=шчр in яЁюё=Ёрэё=тх" whose streamline polished surfaces bore in themselves a mysteriousness trace.
a constructivism Sculpture
Creating in perfect other key, the Italian futurists, for example, Umberto Bochchoni, sang of speed and dynamism of a modern life. Works so modern on spirit, but on art problems (1890-1977) and its adherents reminded more abstract Nauma Gabo accuracy and elegance of forms of the car and scientific models. Konstruktivisty have played a considerable innovative role, working with industrial materials (plastic, glass, a steel more likely), designing, rather than cutting from a stone the products and creating skeletal structures instead of traditional sculptural weight.
Not less radical withdrawal from tradition have undertaken anarchical dadaisty, practising intentionally causing "рэ=шшёъѕёё=тю" including assamblazhi, consisting of a set of subjects which have casually got under a hand or any stuff.
Begun till 1914, art revolution has liberated creativity of masters almost all directions. Many outstanding sculptors of the XX-th century continued to create images from the world of people, but, any more without being afraid of distortion or simplifications of forms for the sake of achievement of emotional effect. This general tendency which has received the name of an expressionism, is appreciable in creativity of Alberto Dzhakometti (1901-66), whose thin as the figure edge is born by heavy burden of the latent fault and alarms.
Since 1945 the gradual recognition of a modernist sculpture, and, behind few widely known exceptions has begun, new ideas and materials have lost the shocking novelty. Creation of abstract metal designs concerns number of noteworthy currents, more often collected of separate details, rather than tselnolityh. American David Smith who in time of some years to work by the welder became the pioneer of this direction. Its some creations are painted by paints. Later this method was adopted by Anthony Kero, the visible English sculptor on metal of 19b0 th years.
From the end of 1950th the greatest popularity in art the direction has got pop art finding the most different ways of an embodiment. Being osoznanno modernist, it, nevertheless, sang not of cars, and a century of consumer culture. Bronze beer banks of Jasper of Johns concern characteristic creations of pop art (the river 1930) or huge vinyl hamburgers and small horns of frozen Klasa of Oldenburg (the river 1929).
It brings All to thought that last years habitual categories of painting and a sculpture frequently lose a former urgency. However, judging by that furore which was made in 1990th by the corpses of animals exposed by Demenom Hurst in vessels with formaldehyde, to a sculpture still to eat than shock public.