During an epoch of the Middle Ages painting became one of the pivotal kinds of arts. Changes in lives of a society and new techniques have given the chance to artists to create the realistic products penetrated by deep humanism to which could make original revolution in the West European art.
On a decline of a Romance epoch of painting the supporting role maljarstva was taken away. But with arrival of XIII century the prompt development of the western civilisation which has opened before artists new prospects has begun. Palaces and locks of the higher nobility were decorated with unprecedented earlier magnificence, Paris, Prague, London, cities of Italy and Flanders roughly expanded. All new cloths - first only on religious plots - thirsted not only aristocrats and priests, but also prosperous townspeople. With literacy distribution demand for the literature of the secular maintenance increased also. The best samples of book art richly issued by miniatures, intended for kings and princes and were created not only in monasteries, but also the professional artists who had own workshops. Despite low enough social standing at a life, names of many artists and their biography became property of history.
The New relation to painting was promoted also by variety of religious innovations. In the beginning of XIII century church altars has decorated zaprestolnyj an image against which divine services were conducted. It quite often consisted of two (diptih), three (triptych) and more shutters, but described uniform group of characters or a scene. The image of the aid donor (the person who have paid manufacturing of an altar image and its offered church) which its sacred patron represents to the Madonna used special popularity. Putting before the artist difficult creative problems, the altar image at the same time opened new ample opportunities for self-expression at registration of altar space to which had to become a subject of the main attention and religious feelings of flock.
there Has come also blossoming of wall painting - partly as a result of strengthening based St. Frantsisky Assizsky awards of Franciscans for which the increasing quantity of churches was under construction. Painting as creation of a mosaic or demanded a lot of time has appeared in the most suitable way of their ornament, or was considered as inadmissible luxury for an award professing poverty and humility.
Strong influence on the further destiny of painting was rendered by a life and activity of most St. Frantsiska Assizsky (1182-1226). The sincere love sacred to the wildlife world has helped its contemporaries to realise beauty of terrestrial life, and since XIII century in medieval painting the new view on the world dominated. Henceforth artists, without refusing religious subjects, with obvious pleasure represented a material world and created in a new realistic and humanistic manner.
Worship deeply human image of the Madonna also has made powerful humanistic impact on religion, and through it and on art where these plots were constantly used.
the Italian masters
Many of tendencies have arisen in Italy, rather than in other countries of Europe much earlier. Two masters of the end of XIII century - Chimabue and Duchcho - are considered obshche as recognised founders of tradition of visible realism in painting to which could dominate in the European art up to XX century. Both have left to descendants the well-known altar images where as the main characters act the Madonna with the baby.
Shortly both painters their younger contemporary Dzhotto di has eclipsed Bondone (apprx. 1267-1337). It the first of great Florentine masters has won lifetime glory, having achieved honour and riches. However it has so outstripped the time that its many innovations have been understood and accepted by colleagues on a brush only after kind one hundred years. Its heroes from a flesh and blood firmly stand on the earth, but thus are as though capable to move and exist in the natural or architectural environment and space with some hint on depth. But first of all before us the live people possessing deep feelings and emotions. Surprising skill of transfer of all shades of human experiences has made Dzhotto the great drama artist.
Creating the panels, Dzhotto applied the technics of fresco invented by then by Italians. Today we name frescos as the pictures created in this technics, and in general any wall painting. But the original fresco is always a list atop fresh, still the damp plaster serving by a ground for a paint coat. A Italian word "fresco" means "ётхцшщ". For one session that site of the wall undersigned paints only, which master had time to fill on the plaster which has not dried up yet. Here the main role was played by time factor for the pigments put on a damp plaster coat, entered with her chemical reaction, forming proof connections. The dried up fresco was not shelled and not showered, keeping for long centuries protogenic beauty and brightness of paints. Thanks to this enormous technical break after years the greatest masterpieces of fresco, including a list of the Sikstinsky chapel in Vatican brushes Michelangelo have been created.
To the Masters who for the first time have faced this problem, was uneasy to create illusion of a reality of a represented scene. Here were required not only exact transfer of external outlines, but also giving to figures of dimensions of real bodies, and a flat surface of a picture - sensations of depth that the landscape was as though lost in the distance (it is a question of prospect art). Not one generation of the Italian artists perfected this technics, quite often distracting on the decision of such problems, as creation of decorative ornaments. The same problem should be solved and to the masters of other Europe at various times testing powerful influence of the Italian art.
By the end of XIV century the painters working at court yard of the European lords, have created more or less uniform style of painting which often name the international gothic style. Reflecting the refined atmosphere of a court life far from a real life, their products differed more likely refinement and refinement, rather than internal force. Graceful poses and though the prospect was frequently designated only by a hint were given to characters, the smallest details of surroundings left with jeweller accuracy.
All these lines with special brightness were shown in the manuscripts decorated with miniatures made of sovereign families. The famous masters of this genre were Pol Limburg and two his brothers whom, having worked only 16 years (1400-16), have suddenly disappeared from a historical scene. The outstanding collector and the judge of works of art of that epoch duke Jean Berrijsky, the younger brother of French king Charles V was their patron and the customer. His name was glorified by the book which has become history under the name "-хышъюыхяэ№щ chasoslov of the duke …хЁЁшщёъюую". "Орёюёыют" it is obliged by the glory to the excellent miniatures created for it by brothers of Limburgami. The given product which has become by an original wreath of their creativity, remains in 1416 not finished, but we were reached by 12 well-known miniatures on a theme of seasons. On them scenes of sowing, a harvest or the hunting dated by this or that season are represented.
Occurrence of oil paints
In 1430th in Flanders of that time belonging to the duke Burgundian (present Belgium and the Netherlands), absolutely new style of painting has started to develop. Like Italy, Flanders was edge of prospering cities. To this fact many attribute the realistic style of local art deprived underlined aristocratism. And the same as in Italy, blossoming of Flemish painting was promoted by the major technical innovation - oil paints. The pigments pounded with vegetable oil considerably surpassed in brightness prevailing then in painting the distemper as which basis quickly drying egg yolk served. And if to write distemper and it was necessary to create frescos quickly, without pressing in fine details oil paints it was possible to impose a layer behind a layer, achieving surprising picturesque effects. Since then any artist aspiring to perfection, invariably preferred oil painting.
Rober Kampen was the Founder of Flemish picturesque school, but its most known representatives belong to following generation. Unsurpassed portraitist Jan van Ejk (apprx. 1390-1441) became the first of great masters of the European oil painting. By means of oil paints he achieved magnificent transfer of a play of light and a shade on various subjects.
Its younger contemporary Rogir van der Vejden (apprx. 1399-1464) was extraordinary presented artist also. Not so caring of details as van Ejk, he preferred rich bright colours, accurate contours and thin modelling of volumes, having created own unique style, capable to transfer a wide spectrum of emotions - from serene calmness to boundless grief.
The Flemish school has given to art not one generation of brilliant masters of painting, and within all XV century many lines inherent in it were adopted by artists of all Europe. Only since 1500 on change by it the new current which gradually was gaining in strength behind the Alpine ridges - the Italian Renaissance has come.