"Гюыю=ющ тхъ" Hollywood - 1930-40th - lasted until its audience was grasped by TV. During this period the set of the films which have become by classics of a cinema was born, and many film stars have reached an international recognition.
The Mute cinema bewitched millions people, however tremendous success "¤хтчр фцрчр" (1927) has convinced the Hollywood producers that the future for "уютюЁ Ёшь" cinema. The sound equipment has been established on all largest film studios, and the new era has begun.
Many actors could not adapt to new conditions. For game in a sound film it was required not only ability to own scenic speech, but also new style of actor's skill. Some directors, for example, Charlie Chaplin, continued to remove, as a matter of fact, all the same "эхь№х" films, only adding few sound elements, but the present sound films had so stronger influence, it was impossible what to resist to changes.
The Sound has naturally affected all kinds of film production. Henceforth music became a film integral part. The musical has especially brightly proved as a genre in a picture "-рь№" (1934) and other statements of Basbi of Berkeley where the whole compositions with participation of corps de ballet which was constantly reconstructed have been used, creating "І¶¶хъ= ърыхщфюёъюяр". Musicals used a great popularity and in theatrical performances, but at cinema, by means of an unusual inclination of the chamber or a close up, they could be made especially interesting. Some pictures of the middle of the century with success used these methods: so, for example, in films with participation of Freda Astera dance has been shown absolutely in a new fashion.
Hollywood began to invite composers and to a certain extent became the patron of music of the XX-th century. Composers-innovators as, for example, Arnold Shenberg, received fees from film studios (though that they wrote, it was not always used - music creation to a film was "=юёэ№ь" an art form which the composer no means always owned!).
the Comedy and eskapizm
Probably, music was the most obvious aspect of the cinema which have won from application of new technology, however with the advent of possibility to say from the word screen the new form of a comedy has blossomed also. The actors of a colloquial genre counting more on jokes, instead of on a rough farce to cause laughter in an audience, now could transfer the art on the screen. The new genre - a comedy film - covered also jokes of the Bean of Hope, and a lambent humour of detective films with William Powell's participation and Mirny Loj. In films of brothers Marx the word-play was combined with elements hohmy for creation of atmosphere of general cheerful anarchy.
Existed and "Іъёчхэ=Ёшёэ№х" comedies in which excessively serious people were won by carefree, absent-minded persons. But not only the comedy has won from speech occurrence at cinema. Problems of a personal choice have taken the place in the film dramas focused on a female audience in which such stars, as Betti Devis acted in film.
In 1930th years the Hollywood films practically did not concern problems of Great depression, preferring eskapizm, i.e. Leaving from the validity. Perhaps, only films about gangsters concerned a real life. Their protagonists - Edward Dzh. Robinson in "¦рыхэіъюь НхчрЁх" (1930) and James Keshi in "-Ёрух эрЁюфр" (1931) - even caused in the spectator some liking as inevitably appeared in a stalemate in the end of a film.
Such film genres as the western or a film of horrors, easily adapted for sound occurrence at cinema thanks to which they had a possibility to create more fascinating atmosphere and more interesting images. Such directors as John Ford and Howard Hawkes, and such stars as John Wayne and Henry Fonda, have shown that the western too can transmit really spirit of the past and bare the personal and public conflict. Thanks to the Hungarian actor Bele Lugoshi in a role of count Drakuly and to Englishman Boris Karloffu in roles of a monster of Frankenshtejna, films of horrors have won huge popularity and have generated set of imitators and continuations.
System of stars
The Most part of the Hollywood films was under construction round movie stars which number included Garys Cooper, Betti Devis, Clark Gejbl, Greta Garbo, Ketrin Hepbern and Spenser Trejsi.
"Ршё=хьр чтхчф" was of great importance for the industry which very quickly made a large quantity of tapes. Despite a considerable quantity of brilliant works, the majority of the Hollywood films were rather mediocre and predicted, and were a success only at the expense of skilful advertising and charm of actors. The film conveyor was rigidly supervised and depended on collective work: the genius-single standing independently - for example, Orson Wells, whose "+Ёрцфрэшэ -хщэ" (1941) is a masterpiece of a world cinema, - has soon been compelled to accept new game rules.
As a rule, Hollywood avoided difficult political and social problems, to questions of sexual relations of a place practically was not because of rigid self-censorship, and, it is as though improbable looked, last shots kindly always won harm. Many films meaningly became very much "фюсЁюяюЁ фюёэ№ьш" and "рьхЁшърэёъшьш" on spirit though sometimes Hollywood used foreign directors and actors from whom was required need the film an easy touch of perversity and the sophistication, associating with Europe. German actress Marlene Dietrich perfectly well played such roles. The French actor Charles Buaje has won glory "ухЁю -ы¦сютэшър" and the Swedish actress Greta Garbo, sensual and mysterious, became one of the greatest legends of Hollywood of all times.
Outside of Hollywood
Outside of the USA the most part of films was only the form of easy entertainment calculated exclusively on a national audience. They did not have not enough universal attractiveness and professionalism of the Hollywood pictures. But few rather high-quality works possessed novelty of vision and a maturity of outlook which could be met in the Hollywood films. In France there were such stars, as Jean Gaben, and such great directors, as Marseilles Karne and, of course, Jean Renoir, whose "¤Ёртшыр шуЁ№" (1939) now enter into ten the best films of a world cinema. Among German directors it is possible to allocate G.V.Pabst and Fritsa Lang who has created the chilling I smother a classical film "¦" (in domestic hire "Лсшщчр" 1931).
In Soviet Union the sound cinema has got accustomed not at once, and Stalin reprisals have destroyed not one career. However the great director of mute cinema Sergey Eisenstein nevertheless has created the sound masterpiece - a picture "Ђтрэ +Ёючэ№щ" (1942-46), and in a film "-х=ё=тю +юЁіъюую" mark Donskogo is perfectly shown a life of pre-revolutionary Russia.
In Great Britain tremendous success Alexander Korda with a picture "Орё=эр had Henry's life VIII" (1932), however attempts to create the film industry of the international scale have not crowned success. Before the emigration to Hollywood great British director Alfred Hitchcock has shot a picture "-хфш шёёхчрх=" (1938) and some other films. Carefully executed, full author's zadumki, intense expectation and visual unexpectedness, its work, from "ГртюЁюцхээюую" (1945) to "¤ёш§ю" (I960), and differed from all others later.
After the termination of the Second World War Hollywood had problems. The new law has cancelled the exclusive control of film studios over cinemas, having opened competition road. The McCarthyism - a policy of prosecution of all suspected of communications with communists - has deprived the American cinema of set of talented persons. But the greatest loss was put by the TV offering weight of entertaining programs, to look which it was possible without leaving the house. Now cinemas had to struggle for the spectator.
Manufacture low budget and bystrookupaemyh pictures became One of the exits found Hollywood. In reply to inquiries of post-war time some films addressed to social problems. There was a set of the criminal dramas which have been removed in dark premises, differing the general gloomy atmosphere and transferring sensation of internal disintegration. Having received from the French critics the name "¶шыіь эѕрЁ" ("ёхЁэ№щ ¶шыіь"), this genre, to general surprise, has appeared influential enough. However creation of pictures of such scale which to TV would be not under force was the basic Hollywood tactics of a gain of an audience.
Thanks to process "Ђё=ьрэъюыюЁ" the colour cinema has practically superseded the black-and-white. In 1953 the era of a wide-screen format, shooting with scenery has begun and a return projection (shooting of actors on already finished shooting background) have given way to shootings on location, and later there was also a stereophonic sound. The whole series "сыюъсрё=хЁют" as a result was born; (under the name of an aerial bomb of the big calibre) - long, expensive shows, such, as "-хё =і чряютхфхщ" (1956) and "-юѕЁхэё +Ёртшщёъшщ" (1962). In 1950th years such recognised stars as Keri the Grant and James Stewart, have even more strengthened the position. Have appeared also new, among them - Marlon Brando, James Din and Merilin of Monroe.
In other world
In the best displays the European cinema showed deep artistry and gravity. The short-lived Italian school of neo-realism (Rossellini, Visconti, de Sika) shot films about difficulties of an everyday life in post-war years, often using nonprofessional actors and shooting in real places of events; "¤ю§ш=ш=хыш тхыюёшяхфют" (1948) Vittorio de Sika - one of the most known films of this school. In the beginning of the career the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman has removed "Рхфіьѕ¦ яхёр=і" (1956) and "Гхьы эшёэѕ¦ яюы эѕ" (1957) after which there were also other sharp, often pessimistic films in which the attention to the question on meaning of the life was brought. Despite political censorship, in the Eastern Europe acted in film fine though, probably, and gloomy works, and Akira Kurosawa in Japan and Satijadzhit of Yards in India have announced to the world a birth of a qualitative Asian cinema.