Having generated as a genre in Italy, the opera since 1597 has quickly extended across all Europe. However fashion-makers in a new art form invariably there were Italian composers, such as Klaudio and Alessandro Skarlatti.
Having arisen as "фЁрьр under ьѕч№ъѕ" the opera to the beginning of XIX century has turned to purely musical representation in which to a recitative - to the rhythmical recitation drawlingly - almost does not remain places, and arias were organically entered in a performance plot. An aria (it is literally "тючфѕ§") is long solo number. For the period of aria execution all scenic action faded, and with it almost each phenomenon usually came to the end.
The recitative which has Remained in dialogues usually was accompanied by chords chembalo (harpsichord) when the exchange of remarks occurred in action development, and introductions of all orchestra for expression of strong feelings or experience.
In those days the aria represented solo number of type da capo ("ёэрёрыр"), i.e. In the beginning the main theme, behind it minor then repetition of the main theme followed was executed. In the third part, absolutely excessive from the point of view of a plot, vocal skill of the executor, and, actually, was shown for the sake of it the opera joined all aria. The well-known singers decorated the parties so masterly passages that those, eventually, have turned to improbably difficult vocal turns resulting public in violent delight.
Eunuchs - singers-men, in the childhood podvergshiesja castrations were the Greatest opera executors of that epoch to keep a boyish soprano. Such voice supported with force of an adult organism, differed amazing cleanliness and flexibility, and in a XVIII-th century of heart of public the outstanding singers-eunuchs one of which was Farinelli (1705-82) captivated.
Up to XIX century leading parties in operas-seria ("ёхЁіхчэ№§ юяхЁр§") executed man's sopranos, and only later it on change send the tenor. The Opera-seria was action rather far from a real life, and its plots - as a rule, episodes from an antique history in free treatment - amaze a modern audience with the artificiality. However in this genre the Italian opera has won all Europe where almost all performances were executed in Italian. Even German Handel and great reformers of an opera the Glitch and Mozart wrote music on the Italian libretto. Only in France own national tradition which bases were put by Jean Batist Ljulli was generated. However, and it began the course of life in Florence under Giovanni Battista Lulli's name.
To the middle of a XVIII-th century the opera-buffa, or a comic opera began to compete to an opera-seria. In this cheerful musical performance with fast change of events simple people in usual everyday situations operated, and, even getting in ridiculous or difficult situations, characters showed real emotions (unlike grandiloquent outpourings in an opera-seria). In an opera-buffa familiar defects, say, greed and vanity were derided by all. Having offered the spectator it is perfect other tradition, the opera-buffa too has gained considerable distribution outside of Italy, and in France even has provoked pamphlet "тющэѕ сѕ¶¶юэют". In this genre brilliant composers of Pergolezi, Paiziello and Chimaroza worked.
In XVIII century the accurate side between a serious and comic opera was gradually erased, and in a serious opera comic characters and episodes have started to appear. With development of ensembles in which different characters, conducting the general melody, simultaneously expressed different feelings, the aria has lost the leading positions. These and a number of other changes have given to an opera the big flexibility and dramatic nature. By 1800 the epoch of eunuchs though performed by the soloist - now, as a rule, women (prima donna) - still sounded the most complicated masterly arias which popularity sometimes even eclipsed glory of their executor has approached to a decline!
However achievements of the past epoch were great, the century XIX became the Golden Age of the Italian opera by right. Dzhoakkino Rossini, the prolific genius, with equal shine writing serious and comic operas was the first great composer of a new formation. Love of public its comic operas "Ђ=рыі эър in +ыцшЁх" to this day enjoy; (1813) and well-known "Рхтшыіёъшщ чшЁ¦ыіэшъ" (1816). Last has been written for incomplete two weeks, and some fragments the author has borrowed from the old compositions.
In 1824 Rossini has moved to Paris which has become by then by musical capital of Europe, and has begun to write operas in the French style with the same ease, as well as in Italian. It "-шыіухыіь Кхыыі" (1829) - the grandiose opera about legendary Swiss luchnike - is so tightened that today is seldom executed without denominations. But the overture to it (the orchestral introduction to a curtain raising) became the most popular classical product.
After "-шыіухыіьр Кхыы " the maestro has ceased to write for a scene though by then has hardly reached 37-year-old age and stayed in the prime of life and talent. The reasons of such decision remain till now a riddle. The life rest-39 - Rossini has spent years in full content and well-being.
The romanticism has made On followers Rossini - an ideological and art direction in the European and American spiritual culture, struggle of passions esteeming by supreme values and extreme individualism deep impact.
Gaetano Donizetti's opera "-¦ёш di -рььхЁьѕЁ" became the Original tragical masterpiece; (1835) on motives of the novel of V.Scott "-рььхЁьѕЁёър эхтхё=р". And the episode of imagined wedding of mad Ljuchii with the lost beloved became, perhaps, to the most well-known "ёчхэющ схчѕьш " in the history of an opera. Similar scenes were rather popular in romantic operas where tragical passions invariably stormed.
Giving due to romantic sufferings, Italians have not lost taste to a comic opera; the same Donizetti it is masterful worked in both genres, having left descendants about 70 operas. Its contemporary Vinchentso of the Bellini has died in young years, having had time to create some recognised masterpieces, including "-юЁьѕ" (1831) which action quite in the spirit of romanticism also occurs among the Gallic druids combating the Roman conquerors. Donizettis and the Bellini were masters belkanto (literally "яЁхъЁрёэюх яхэшх"). From ornamental style of an epoch of eunuchs belkanto differs refined lyricism to which the master is capable to give depth of original feeling.
Juseppe Verdi who lived a long 87-year-old life and have created variety of immortal products - from "+схЁ=ю" was the Greatest Italian opera composer; (1830) to "Ирыіё=р¶р" (1893). Verdi - to the native of a poor country family - was possible to find the rich patron, soglasivshegosja to pay its study. But Milan conservatory, without having revealed in the young man of talent, has refused to it reception, and to achieve success to it it was necessary persistent work and private lessons.
From the first steps of composer career of Verdi has tested some heavy blows - a failure of early products, and then death of the wife and two children. At one time it, appear, was ready to throw for ever writing, but, fortunately, one favourable impresario has shown it the libretto (the literary text) "-рсѕъъю". Inspired by a heroic plot, Verdi has immediately got down to business, and in 1842 the premiere of a new opera has taken place. She has been partly obliged by the tremendous success to the well-known chorus "Va pensiero" in which captivated in Babylon iudei grieve for the lost native land. Italians have seen here a hint on own oppressed position under the power of Austria, and in Verdi's subsequent operas continually there were scenes with the latent patriotic sense.
Meanwhile, in 1850th from under Verdi's feather one for another there are operas which have glorified his name: "ршуюых==ю" (1851), "КЁѕсрфѕЁ" (1853) and "КЁртшр=р" (1853) in which the melodic riches are combined with depth of human experiences.
To tops of creativity of Verdi also belongs grandiose "хушях=ёър " an opera "+шфр" (1871) and two masterpieces created in the evening of life on motives of Shakespearean plays - "+=хыыю" (1877) and "Ирыіё=р¶" (1893). The bright romanticism and is a little utrirovannye characters Verdi many years reigned on an opera scene while in 1890 has not declared itself a developing creative direction - verizm, or realism. New operas have deduced for the first time on a scene of simple peasants and other characters from society bottoms, in them everyday passions violently raged.
The Greatest popularity was got by two short operas often executed in one performance - "Рхыіёър ёхё=і" (1890) Petro Maskani and "¤р ч№" (1892) Rudzhero Leonkavallo. In both before the spectator are developed a love story and jealousy, and both come to an end with destruction of heroes.
Dzhakomo Puccini who have introduced in an opera the brilliant gift of the melodist was Verdi's Worthy successor. Many of its arias - for example, the well-known aria of Kalafa from an opera "КѕЁрэфю=" - it is literally at all on hearing and for a long time to a steel "яюяѕы Ёэющ ъырёёшъющ".
The First success was brought to the founder by an opera "¦рэюэ -хёъю" (1893). Tell that after a premiere the curtain rose not less than 50 times. Three subsequent products were included into gold fund of opera classics: "…юухьр" (1896) about a life and love of poor Parisian poets and artists; melodramaic "Кюёър" (1900) and "¦рфрь …р==хЁ¶ы щ" (1904), a sad story of love of the young Japanese. To its feather also belongs opera "тхё=хЁэ" "-хтѕ°ър with Грярфр" (1910), and a Chinese opera full to gloomy romanticism "КѕЁрэфю=". Work on last opera, interrupted with death of the composer in 1924, Franchesko Alfano, and a premiere "КѕЁрэфю=" has finished; has taken place in 1926
With Puccini's leaving the great lyrico-dramatic tradition of the Italian opera of XIX century has come to the end