the Gothic style was the first rather original architectural style which was born in Northern Europe. More than 300 years the rising up, penetrated cathedrals rising up by light and churches were an embodiment of humility and arrogance of medieval Christians.
The Romance style dominating in architecture of the early Middle Ages, impressed, first of all, with stocky massiveness of forms. Thick walls, voluminous columns and powerful buttresses did not leave a place to light that did cathedrals and churches by the gloomy and strict constructions plunging into reverential trembling. Then, in the middle of XII century, in France there was absolutely other type of church constructions. Besides that their spikes, appear, concerned the heavens, structurally new churches were much more graceful and easier. In a building the imagination was amazed with height and light abundance.
New style has been embodied for the first time in France at building of the main church of abbey of Saint-Denis near to Paris. A building have constructed in 1140-44 by request of the abbey, but it is not known, whether the idea belonged to it or the anonymous master of masons. Anyhow, the abbey remained is happy with result - in particular the wonderful stream of light freely flowing from windows.
New style has got accustomed, and within 20 years the construction of Gothic cathedrals has begun in Sanz, Nuajone and Lane nearby to Paris, and also in the Paris where in 1163 the well-known has been put I Notr-will give. Spikes directed all above in the sky, and in XIII century Gothic style was included into the mature phase by right named a high gothic style and Shartra most brightly embodied in magnificent cathedrals, Rheims and Amiens.
From the technical point of view, the gothic style was simply the system, allowing to use much less massive bearing designs for maintenance of stability of higher constructions.
It became possible thanks to such rather new receptions, as a lancet arch, the ridge arch and powerful external columns (buttresses) with binding slanting arches (arkbutanami). The lancet arch is considered a gothic style symbol: the sight directs up, and the sensation of much bigger height, than at a circular (Romance) arch is created. Such design was much steadier and flexible as its height, unlike the circular arches blocking set space, could be regulated depending on an angle of lead.
For gothic style development opening was solving that the weight and pressure of a stone laying can concentrate in certain points and if in these parts them to support, it is not obligatory to other elements of construction to be bearing. As a result there was a lot of an open space. Function of the arches (stone ceilings and roofs) has changed, as loading was taken now up by their edges (rib), diagonalno crossing in height. It allowed to fill space between edges rather thin laying. Descending loading of a costal skeleton had on the pilasters located with an equal interval, and that was a blank wall earlier, became graceful gallery.
the Arch buttress
The arch buttress which maintained already other loading - created in the arch weight, but directed outside was One more achievement of Gothic architecture. Instead of utolshchat a wall laying, buttresses settled down on certain distance and incorporated to it only narrow bent arches that, however, was enough for effective carrying over of loading from a wall on basic columns. And that was very important, it allowed the main nave - the central part of church - to tower over lateral side-altars of a temple, and the top number of the windows shining choruses, was covered with nothing.
the Skeleton from a stone
The General result of application of these receptions was that massive church structures have taken a form easy skeletoobraznyh skeletons. Hardly the similar description transfers art skill and a sense of beauty shown by builders at the decision of technical problems. Numbers kontrforsnyh arches, for example, came to the end with peaked turrets that strengthened tendency in the sky and became one of the most remembered lines inherent in Gothic buildings.
Space between "ъюё= ьш" a skeleton could be glazed or filled by sculptures. The stone part of the top plane of windows followed the general tendency of a gothic style, becoming more and more facilitated and pautinopodobnoj. Openwork stone work - one more characteristic feature of Gothic style - has taken in due course a form of intricate ornaments; ribs on the arches also incorporated in more and more whimsical weaving. I Gothic period has impulsed also to sculpture blossoming: the liberated space of cathedrals gave unlimited possibilities for development of more realistic art, and the separate figures cut in full, have replaced the relief compositions dominating before which figures as though appeared from a wall.
Gothic style has extended from France to England and Germany where became dominating. To the south, where considerably differed both traditions, and a climate, it has made smaller impact though the Milan cathedral and is the sample of the Italian gothic style.
In England among many masterpieces of Gothic architecture it is possible to name the Welsh, Linkolnsky and Solsberijsky cathedrals, the Jorksky cathedral, Westminster abbey and I St. George's church, and also the Windsor Castle. On change enough ordinary-looking "Ёрээхрэуышщёъющ" to a phase (apprx. 1180-1280) the period "ѕъЁр°хээюую" has come; style (apprx. 1280-1360), noted by occurrence of many especially national fig. But as a whole the rich decor was more svojstven to continental Europe where there were no analogies to English "яхЁяхэфшъѕы Ёэюьѕ" to style (apprx. 1360-1550) from it it is underlined by I straight lines and the simplified repeating motives. Simplicity of this style did its comprehensible not only for cathedrals, but also for parish churches which on all country the great variety, while in XVI century, with blossoming of the Renaissance and the beginning of Reformatsii has been built, the Gothic epoch has not come to an end both in England, and in other Europe.