Friderik Frantsishek Chopin was refined impressionable in kind the typical creative person of an epoch of romanticism. Its brilliant game
And products full deep lyricism almost half a century dominated in piano music.
Chopin Name as any other composer, associates with one tool - a piano. Said that as the pianist it surpassed many virtuosos of a XIX-th century though did not like to give concerts and for all life has addressed to public of no more than 30 times. As the composer it has played an outstanding role in transformation of shape of piano music. Its friend Robert Schuman named Chopin innovative style "яѕ°ърьш, covered in чтх=р§".
the Childhood in Frederic Chopin
Father Friderika Mikolaj in young years has left France and has lodged in Poland where in 1806 married Justyne Kshizhanovsky. The future composer was born in mazovetskoj to a small village of Zheljazova Will, near to Warsaw. According to record in the register of a local church, it was born on February, 22nd, 1810 though mother of the composer named other date - on March, 1st. The boy has spent happy years of the childhood with three sisters.
Friderik was surprisingly the exceptional child. He drew caricatures, wrote verses and without any formal preparation played a piano in a duet with Ljudvikoj. In 6 years it has started to take lessons of music from the local teacher who has acquainted him with classical German repertoire, especially from product mi I.S.Bach. The boy willingly improvised, and in 1817 the first composition of the seven-year composer - a polonaise has been published. The capital press was not slow to declare with pride the young author the genius. It has quickly become famous and did not know a release from invitations to act with public concerts. It has given the first concert at the age of 8 years.
Since 11 years Friderik has started to take composition lessons at the Main school of music recently opened in Warsaw. In 15 years it has published the first composition (Ор.1) - a rondo for a piano, and year later, in 1826, has started employment under the direction of J.Elsnera. In days of study - as, however, and all life - Chopin was the habitue of musicales, concerts and opera performances, trying not to pass anything interesting. But Warsaw did not belong to number of the large musical centres of Europe, and soon Chopin has felt requirement of departure abroad to enrich and expand the musical experience.
In 1829 it has given some concerts to which excellent welcome has been accorded in Vienna. The innovation of its music has resulted ventsev in full delight, and Chopin has returned to Warsaw full determination to reach the international recognition.
All this time it without ceasing wrote music. Two concerts and a variation on opera themes "-юэ гѕрэ" then were issued; Mozart, allowed the author with special brightness to show the mastery, and considerably enriched technics of piano game. But Chopin music at all its virtuosity has been never deprived the deep maintenance whereas difficult passages in compositions of some hundred contemporaries only showed skill of the executor. Applikatura, use of pedals and rhythmics have expanded an arsenal of expressive means of a piano and have strengthened power hundred soundings. The style of game entered by the Polish pianist has prevailed in Europe on whole half a century.
Through Vienna to Paris
On November, 2nd, 1830 20-year-old Chopin has left Poland. Saying goodbye to Warsaw, it took with itself(himself) a silver vessel with a handful of the native earth, probably, having a presentiment that leaves the native land forever.
Though in Poland there has passed only the childhood and Chopin early youth, but its mature products are got by the Polish spirit, and even most light of them are noted by the grief press. For eight months spent to Vienna, Chopin has given only two concerts. Therefrom it has gone to Paris, capital of the European culture of that time. Having learnt already in France about bloody suppression by imperial armies of revolt in Poland, the composer captured by despair has written the passionate etude which has received the name "рхтюы¦чшюээю го". Under assumptions of some historians the young pianist has been connected with the revolutionary movement which had for an object clearing of Poland.
the Life in Paris
In 1831 t. Chopin comes to Paris. The French capital became for peto the second native land, but and has not given happiness. At that time in Paris numerous Polish emigration, including A.Mickiewicz, S.Vitvitsky, J.U.Nemtsevich, T.Norvid and J.Fontana was found. Thanks to acquaintance to them Chopin has been accepted in the best houses of a city though itself not the squanderer to brag of surplus will put. At first he earned on a life game lessons on a piano which gave basically to compatriots. The most popular teacher in Paris it became only after performance on a musicale at Rothschild rich family. Now interested persons had to pay for hundred lessons huge money, and soon Chopin became rather provided person. In letters home it bragged that before it doors of the most brilliant salopov where it accept as equals With ambassadors, ministers and the higher nobility are opened. To become famous in Paris, was to show to the world the achievements insufficiently. Participation in the high life salons were which centres was an indispensable condition of success. The high society there gathered, concerts for the selected public were arranged. Rich owners of salons even transformed them into the present concert halls. For example, the manufacturer of a piano of Plejel suited in svoejgostinoj a scene with a heavy velvet curtain on which Chopin has played many of the Parisian concerts before cream of a capital society. It was surrounded with outstanding people, it was the favourite of aristocratic salons, but in it did not see the person immensely suffering for destiny of the fatherland after bloody suppression of November revolt.
During this period its main solo compositions for a piano were issued. However concert career developed not too successfully. Chopin did not possess neither temperament, nor a sound health necessary for a wearisome way of life of the giving concerts pianist. Besides, its quiet game could not fill space of huge concert halls, and before each performance it was held down by insuperable fear.
Chopin has spent the Most part of an adult life in Paris, only occasionally going to travel. In 1835 he has visited Dresden where has fallen in love with 16-year-old Maria Vodzinskuju whom has decided to marry. But parents Maria have opposed these plans, and soon not taken place novel has died away. The same year through the known German composer and the contemporar F.Mendelson Chopin gets acquainted with the outstanding creator of romantic music Robert Schuman. Schuman's enthusiastic reviews of Chopin products have glorified a name of the Polish composer in Germany. On Mozart's theme the German composer welcomed a variation words: "Рэшьш=х hats, misters. Before you new гений".
Chopin and its senior for a year the friend, ingenious Hungarian composer Ferents Sheet, belonged to number of leading pianists of time. However, relations between them not always developed cloudlessly because of serious divergences in the approach to music. Chopin concerned it with classical care. On its tool always there was a metronome, and not able to hold a step pupils infuriated it. The sheet played more bravura, shchegolskoj to a manner and has been inclined "тэюёш=і яюяЁртъш" in another's products on course of execution. Tell that once the Sheet has executed Chopin nocturne, having decorated with hundred masterly inserts. Indignant Chopin has grumbled that the Sheet or should play music how it is written, or not to play at all.
However, despite "ъырёёшёхёъшщ" temperament, Chopin and itself willingly diversified the music. For this purpose it usually used reception "tempo rubato" at which the accompanying hand accurately holds liberties performed by the compositions and never played the same play equally. Spontaneous character of its music which often originated in improvisation was the reason for that. For all that Chopin wrote music slowly and with the greatest tshchaniem. At all ease of its improvisations creative process was long and painful, and the composer could alter the one and only musical phrase endlessly. Under the certificate of the eyewitness when Chopin has not been satisfied by result of work, with it there was a nervous attack, and he behaved as the present madman.
Almost Chopin all music is written for a piano (with an orchestra only 2 concerts - "Ир-ьшэюЁ" and "¦ш-ьшэюЁ"), its musical heritage included 2 imaginations, 26 preludes, 17 polonaises rate, and other hand freely conducts a melody, hardly in a slowed-up way executing one sweats and hardly uskorenno - others. Chopin even afforded some 58 mazourkas, 17 waltzes, 21 nocturne, 4 ballads, 4 scherzos, 4 impromptus, set of chamber products, songs and other small forms. Written in the homeland of a mazourka, waltzes and polonaises are represented by the stylised Ghanaians. The intimate lyrics of mazourkas sharply contrasts with salonnym shine of waltzes. It is easy to notice that some the polonaises created on foreign land were born in an impulse of patriotic inspiration.
Both piano concerts are written before departure abroad and, undoubtedly, connected with events in Poland where at that time there was a preparation for November revolt.
During the next national revolt against Russia there was an episode which it is possible to name a twist of fate. After attempt on September, 19th, 1863 on the imperial deputy of general Berg a palace Zamojsky in the Warsaw street New Svjat has been plundered, and from a window on a roadway the piano which Chopin once played is thrown out.
Love and an illness
In October, 1836 Chopin gets acquainted in the house of Sheet with the excentric writer George Sajd (Avrora Djudevan real name). It was attracted always with celebrities, and by then on its account there were many love affairs with representatives of a romantic circle into which it has entered also the Polish composer.
In the Summer of 1838 Sand and Chopin became lovers. The next winter they have spent in a monastery on island Malorka where the writer cared about health of the friend. The Mediterranean climate and magnificence of the nature has gone on advantage to the composer who did not stop work on new compositions. But with arrival of autumn rains at Chopin the symptoms of a tuberculosis which had an effect already of some years have amplified. In February of 18.39 they have returned to France where have retired to Noane, a rural manor George Sand. Since then they up to 1846 left there for the summer, and came back to Paris where occupied separate apartments in the winter. Free from the composition of music or lessons Chopin spent time with George Sand both its children of Solanzh and Morisom.
Meanwhile, the illness undermined health of the composer. At high enough growth it did not weigh and 50 kg - the little more than 12-year-old Solanzh. But, despite illness, he on desperate requests of friends has decided to give some concerts. This decision was preceded by so much fears and doubts that mistress Lista Mari d'agu has told once: "Пюяхэ all time fluctuates, is constant at it only ър°хыі".
The Concert which has taken place on April, 26th, 1841, became original triumph - magnificent reviews, huge monetary gathering. However Chopin has addressed to public just time. However, as has noticed the same year Sheet, the Pole has so brilliant reputation that is out of any criticism.
In the meantime there has come cooling and in relations of the composer with George Sand that too has negatively affected on its health. In process of a growing of children of the writer in the house quarrels even more often flashed. Sand even has written the novel which main heroine perishes because of jealousy of the sick beloved. The conclusion arose by itself - it was bored by a life with Chopin, and in 1847 after rough quarrel between lovers there was a rupture.
Chopin Physical and sincere health has seriously reeled. To distract the composer from sad thoughts on the sufferings, friends have again persuaded him to address to public. This time it was accompanied by the former schoolgirl Jane Sterling, helping to overcome that painful nervousness which he traditionally tested before concerts.
In April, 1848 seriously ill Chopin goes to England where gives a concert in London and even makes a 12-hour trip to Edinburgh by rail. In letters he, the truth, complained that hardly breathes and just about "ю=фрё= to God фѕ°ѕ". The sterling, dreaming to become the wife of the composer, the beginning it to irritate, and, having referred to an intolerable English climate, Chopin has returned to Paris.
Illness has for a short while receded, having allowed the composer to spend in a circle of friends some rather happy months. The inspiration has returned also. So two mazourkas published already after death of Chopin have been created.
But the new attack of an illness was any more behind mountains. Last days lives the composer was looked after by his sister Ljudvika. Chopin has died in Paris on October, 17th, 1849 Funeral have taken place on the ritual conceived by it during which time has been executed "рхътшхь" Mozart.
Friderik Chopin is buried on the Parisian cemetery of Per-Lashez, nearby to tombs of great Italian composers of Donizetti and Kerubini. In its tomb poured out a handful of the earth brought from the native land which it carefully stored all time of stay for foreign land. Years later the urn with heart of the great composer only is a lot of has been brought to Warsaw and immured in a lateral nave of a church of the St. Cross.
On Chopin tomb in Paris there is a monument modeled by the son-in-law George Sand - the husband of her daughter Solanzh. In Will park Zheljazovoj two monuments to Chopin - one in 1894 and another in 1968 are erected And in 1948 in its native home the museum has opened.