the Classical epos


the Classical epos the Epos is included into number of the earliest literary works which have reached till our times. It has in many respects affected formation of early civilisations, including ancient Greece and Rome which, in turn, have made huge impact on cultural traditions of the present.

In essence, the epic poem is a long narration in the verses, devoted to not which raised theme, for example, to destiny of the people or religious idea. This theme quite often finds an embodiment in acts of heroes which, passing through a number of tests, fatal decisions often make.

We were reached by considerable fragments "Рърчрэш  about +шыіурьх°х" for the first time written down on clay tablets in Sumer about 2000 BC the Legend narrates about wanderings of soldier Gilgamesha in search of true and an eternal life. The earliest full texts of epic poems considerably different on spirit, have been created in the Ancient Greece and always attributed to the Homere. It "Ђышрфр" and "+фшёёх " - the products so honoured by Greeks that them just right to carry to sacred books.


the Homere

Legends draw the Homere the blind singer who recites the verses in palaces of leaders, accompanying itself on lyre, a musical instrument it is similar to a harp. For certain about the Homere it is not known anything, and scientists continue to argue, whether he has written one or both great Ancient Greek poems, and whether it to them has any relation in general. Possibly, all has begun with not which traditional theme which are handed down while somewhere about VIII century BC the narration has not been written down. Record, probably, has been made one or several "уюьхЁрьш" which have overworked, have formed, have ground old legends.

the Classical epos Poems of the Homere consist of stories (a part mythical, partially real), known to each Greek and narrating about the reasons, a course and consequences of Trojan war. War has begun that Trojan tsarevitch Paris has stolen Elena, the wife of the tsar of Sparta Menelaja. Brother Menelaja Agamemnon, the Supreme leader of Mycenae, has urged other Greek governors to oppose Troys to return Elena and to revenge for the insult. After an ineffectual 10-year-old siege of Troy Greeks have outwitted the enemies: having pretended that have receded, they have left a huge wooden horse in whom there were soldiers. Exulting, Trojans have dragged a horse in a city - and have doomed itself to defeat.

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Various episodes of the story about Trojan war and the subsequent events, proisshedshih after returning of the Greek tsars with a victory home, were repeatedly used in a rich literary heritage of Greece. A plot "Ђышрф№" it is based on one of episodes of the final stage of a dragged-out war. Ahill, the first of the first among the Greek soldiers, quarrels with Agamemnonom and, offended, disappears in the tent, refusing to battle. Greeks start to come off second-best, friend Ahilla Patrokl and then furious Ahill engages perishes and kills the most terrible Trojan soldier, tsarevitch Hector.

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In the world of the Homere gods operate side by side with people (let more often and imperceptibly), supporting the contradictory parties, spinning intrigues and battling with each other. It often occurs and in "+фшёёхх" where the protagonist is helped by the goddess Athena, but god of the sea Posejdon continually interferes. Probably, what exactly to Odysseus who was considered as most smart of all Greeks, was come to mind by thought on a wooden game. "+фшёёх " narrates as well about its wanderings and adventures on the way home after falling of Troy. Among the most known episodes - its runaway from a cave of an one-eyed Cyclops of Polifema, Odysseus meeting with magician Tsirtseej who has transformed its companions in pigs, and a drama scene in which it kills all grooms who were not giving to pass to its faithful wife Penelope.


Vergil

Since the Homere minulo six centuries when Romans became governors of the Mediterranean. But the culture of Greece was still highly esteemed, and Romans willingly conducted the history from Greek, believing that the Trojan tsarevitch Enej escaped after falling of its native city and running to Italy, and was their primogenitor. It has inspired the greatest Roman poet Vergil (Publija Vergil Marona, 70-19 BC) on a poem writing in which centre there was Enej as, telling about feats of the ancient hero, it thereby glorified greatness of Rome. Under the protection of the emperor of August Vergil creates "ю¶шчшрыіэ№щ" the Roman epos in which sings of the legendary past of empire - and its present greatness.

"¦эхшфр" meaningly followed traditions of the Homere where gods (this time Roman) all time interfere with affairs of people. The goddess the Juno forces the ship of the wandering hero to go off-course. But it is patronised by his mother Venus, and the ship of Eneja is wrecked near Carthago where Venus forces tsarina Didonu to fall in love with the hero. However the tsar of gods Jupiter orders to Eneju to execute mission of destiny and to leave Carthago. Heart-broken Didona takes the own life. Having visited a kingdom dead, Enej sticks to coast of Italy where after a number of fights and adventures marries the daughter reigning the Latina. Thereby the higher mission of Roman empire as, under Vergil's version, son Eneja Jul became the ancestor of the Juliansky dynasty to which belonged July Caesar and Oktavian August is confirmed.

The Epos of the Greek-Roman world has made huge impact on all western culture, having formed a basis for set of poems, plays, operas, pictures and sculptures.


you Know?

  • Written in II century BC in India "¦р§рс§рЁр=р" and "ррьр эр" - one of the most ancient epic poems.
  • the First English epos the Anglo-Saxon legend "…хютѕыі¶" is considered; (VII century d.C.), narrating about struggle against a dragon.
  • Among the well-known Christian epic poems of the Middle Ages - "¤хёэі about mine Ршфх" about the Spanish hero of struggle against moors and "¤хёэі about рюырэфх" in which the French knights of Roland and Oliver endow themselves for rescue of army of Charles the Great.
  • "-ѕчшрф№" Kamoensa and "¤ю=хЁ ээ№щ Ёрщ" John Milton - creations of the eminent poets who have meaningly selected a patriotic and religious orientation for the products.