Cezanne, Gauguin and Sulfur


In France in the middle of 1880th the impressionism at has stepped a place to more original art directions. Gauguin, Cezanne and Sulfur were their founders.

The Impressionism was inconsistent and extraordinary influential school of the French painting. On change of animosities of critics the general recognition has come. Soon enough the impressionism became habitual that has pushed group of young painters to negation of values of their senior contemporaries and search of own ways of art expression.

Frenchmen Pol Cezanne, George Sera and Paul Gauguin were Three leaders of new revolution. Now currents to which they belonged and Dutch Vincent van Gogh, on advantage estimated only after death, name postimpressionism. This generalised and is conditional-collective term was entered into the reference by English art critic Roger Fr (1866-1934) already after creativity of adherents of new school has been everywhere recognised by judges of art.


George Sera

From all provozvestnikov than postimpressionism is the closest to the initial purposes of impressionism there was George Sera (1859-91). He most of all liked to write that so was pleasant to its predecessors - the Parisians enjoying the summer sun or tasting pleasures of evening rest, an everyday life of suburbs, landscapes of northern coast of France. To the son of rich parents, Sulfur never was necessary to earn on a life, therefore he could devote itself(himself) to art search entirely. To seize art of transfer of tones, in the beginning of a way it persistently worked in the technician of black-and-white drawing and only after that has addressed to colour.

Sulfur approached to colour from the scientific point of view: the artist preached optical effect of a colour mixture, preferring to mixing of different paints on a palette imposing on a canvas of a pure colour in the form of set of separate points of not mixed paints. The sizes of colour points carefully miscalculated and varied depending on the sizes of a picture and optimum distance from the spectator who saw not separate points of different colours, and difficult live, more sated colours. This technics has received the name puantilizm (from a word "=юёър"), and as its classical example the famous cloth "-юёъЁхёэр  walk on island +Ёрэф-гр==" serves; (1884-86).

Having investigated properties of colour, Sulfur has passed to studying of lines. He considered that certain lines transfer concrete emotions: a line bent upwards - the happiness, falling downwards - grief, and horizontal lines - serene rest.


Paul Gauguin

Unlike serene and methodical Sulfur, Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), as well as Van Gogh, believed that painting should aspire to display of internal experiences and the same as the Dutch artist, thirsted to change the world to the best. Searches of more perfect and harmonious world as a result have got Gauguin in far-away countries, in absolute other cultural environment. Possibly, Gauguin's draught for brightness and exotic was generated by the childhood spent to Peru. However, first his life developed is ordinary enough: service in the French merchant marine fleet, work at a stock exchange, a marriage, five children, the good house in suburb of Paris...

But suddenly, in 35 years when all in a life was adjusted also affairs went as well as possible, Gauguin had an all-consuming hobby - painting. Soon it could not contain a family any more, has left a former life and in 1886 has got over in a colony of artists in Brittany, in small town Pontus-Aven. It was attracted primitive, but with ardent religiousness of local inhabitants. In a picture "-шфхэшх after church ёыѕцс№" he has tried to transfer the invisible world kind and evil ghosts. It has resolutely torn with impressionist style of painting, has refused the technics of dab inherent in this style and began to impose paints on a canvas wide and wide stains.

Gauguin's Love to primitive art has carried away it in wanderings. He wished to find more natural and correct way of life in the distant countries. It has spent last 12 years of a life on Tahiti and Marquesas Islands, only occasionally navedyvajas to Paris. Islands of the southern seas served for the artist as an inspiration perennial spring. One of distinctive features of its cloths of the Tahiti period is use of the flat, fallen asleep compositions, possibly, cast by art of Ancient Egypt.


Pol Cezanne

If Gauguin thirsted to present private world of the person, Pol Cezanne (1839 - 1906) aspired to dismember a material world. Cezanne was born in Eksan - Provence in a rich family, in the beginning 60 has left to Paris where has got acquainted with creativity of impressionists and with their work in the open air, open-air. Cezanne has started to expose the works together with artists-impressionists, but and has not accepted their method: it gravitated to transfer of changeable effects of light, how many "ё=Ёюшы after яЁшЁюфх" not so much; considering that the artist should understand geometry of the visible, first of all. From here and characteristic dab for Cezanne - accurate, resolute and dense.

In 1886, after death of the father, left to the son the considerable condition, Cezanne comes back in Eks, in an entail property. As a source of inspiration it is served by the surrounding nature. Only mountain Sent-Viktuar the artist writes one more than 60 times! Cezanne laboriously developed each theme, bringing under the painting theoretical researches and the calculations which have made subsequently appreciable impact on new generations of artists. In particular, the image Cezanne of the same subject under different points of view has essentially affected Picasso, Marriage, Lezhe and other artists of the beginning of the XX-th century.