Animation is a creative genre of the cinema, allowing to recover motionless drawings and subjects.
Once someone has suggested Walt Disney to become the mayor of Los Angeles. "Грёхь to me to be the mayor, - he has asked, - if I already ъюЁюыі?" And he not too exaggerated, as to Disney more than someone to another, posesses honour of opening of animation cinema. It became the ancestor of one of the most interesting and influential currents in culture of the XX-th century.
Now animation is so connected with Disney's name that it is impossible to imagine one without another. However, it was popular enough long before Disney's birth and even to the cinema invention. In the most primitive form it looked like the children's book with pictures. The drawing hardly changed in comparison with previous, and at fast browsing was located on each page it seemed that characters move. In a XIX-th century this optical effect was used in every possible toys.
The Modern technology has stepped far forward, but the major principle remained invariable. The animation film a little than differs from the old-fashioned book with pictures. However, modern animation is not limited only risovannymi to films.
Animation by means of the chamber
By means of a special camera it is possible to force to move any subject - from plasticine figures to usual household things. The cartoon film first in the history "НшЁъ Пры=р -…юы=р " Albert E.Smith in 1898 Instead of drawings it has removed took toys of the daughter and accurately rearranged them from a shot to a shot, creating movement illusion. On a boundary of centuries its partner James Stewart Blekbern became the popular writer of animated cartoons. Its film "Грсртэ№х Ёюцшч№" (1906) amused spectators amusing black-and-white sketches - for example, the gentleman in the cylinder let out in the person to the lady a white cloud sigarnogo a smoke.
First in risovannyh and doll films animators aspired to traditional realism. But soon they have understood that animation is an art impossible. Here pigs can fly, mountains - to move, dinosaurs - to walk about by the ground. The imagination of the artist was a unique limit. In 1902 Frenchman George Meles has shot a film "¤ѕ=х°хё=тшх on -ѕэѕ". Shots of a landing of a rocket directly in a human eye of the Moon have opened a door in the country of the most improbable adventures.
During an epoch when the usual cinema has not got out yet of diapers, animation has got huge popularity. However it was very much labour-intensive process. If the artist conceived to make a film alone on every second it it was necessary to do on 24 different drawings - 1440 drawings in a minute. Therefore it is no wonder that the first animated cartoons were very short. Approximately in 1910 the situation has changed. Artists began to work as groups and to do drawings on celluloid - versions of transparent plastic.
The Celluloid technology has sharply reduced work volume. Instead of drawing all scene for each shot, animators simply pererisovyvali the main figures on sheets of celluloid which were imposed on a motionless picture of a background. Sometimes it was not necessary to draw all figure at all. We will tell to force the person to go, was to draw again his feet enough.
Speaking animated cartoons
In 1927 on change to mute cinema has come sound where the soundtrack was synchronised with actions of actors. Young animator Walt Disney has immediately grasped the chance. In 1928 it has let out a cartoon film "¤рЁю§юфшъ -шыыш" in which for the first time there was Mikki the Mouse.
After it there were other favourites of public - duckling Donald, Pluto and Gufi. Special Disney's line - close coordination of action with music was inherent in all films. The top this tendency has reached in a film "-юэчхЁ= юЁъхё=Ёр" (1935) where Mikki through hurricane conducts an orchestra executing the overture to an opera "-шыіухыіь Кхыыі". With arrival of Mikki of the Mouse the century рэшьрчшш" has begun "чюыю=ющ; lasting to the middle of 1950th years. In the wake of Disney brothers of Flejsher with the Popaem eternally chewing spinach gallant morjachkom with mighty bicepses, and figuristoj show girls of Betti Bup with a children's voice have gone. Behind them a train such favourites of public, as Tom and Jerry, Begunok and Kojot, Bags Banni, Mr. to the Magician, Daffi Dak and set of others have moved.
All these beginners strongly differed from Mikki of the Mouse. In hands of such skilful animators, as "Кхъё" Everi, C.Johns, U.Hanna and J. Barbera, they have stepped in novel and often dangerous distances. Unlike Disney's romantic characters, the new generation was exposed to the most improbable tests. They in a flat cake were pressed by steam skating rinks, awful explosions transformed them into brands, they broke through walls, leaving in a laying the accurate silhouette. For it authors time and again subjected to criticism but as their heroes left safe any scrape, it was impossible to concern all these passions seriously.
Now it was necessary to prove that animation is capable to create a full-length feature film. This all the same Disney also has made.
To these holes time factor was the main lack of work on a cartoon film. Disney has managed to solve this problem, having put manufacture on the conveyor. Different departments were charged with the different tasks - drawing of characters, a background, carrying over of drawings on celluloid, mixing of paints, pouring of contours etc. Still in the mid-thirties for Disney worked more than 800 persons.
In 1937 it has let out the first feature film "…хыюёэхцър and seven уэюьют". This long fairy tale with convincing heroes and a plot based on real grieves and pleasures, has beaten all world records of cash gathering. It was followed by a number of new world hits – "¤шэюъъшю" (1940), "Ирэ=рчш " (1940) and "-рьсю" (1941). They have begun the tendency which have remained up to now. Let out by its company oskaronosnyj "-юЁюыі -хт" has entered into 1994 into number of the most cash Hollywood films.
People and animated cartoons
When it has been proved that cartoon films can successfully compete to fiction films, it was necessary to unite both genres only. In 1964 Disney has shot a film "¦ІЁш ¤юяяшэё" where in risovannyh scenery glad with cartoon characters live actors operated. By 1988 when actor Bob Hoskins, as a matter of fact, has played together with risovannym the partner in a film "-=ю has substituted a rabbit рюфцхЁр?" technology of shootings of actors with "ьѕыі= °ърьш" has reached perfection.
Mastering new expressive means, animators simultaneously searched for ways of simplification of the work. Since 70th years of their problem have considerably become simpler thanks to computer technologies. Computers not only work more precisely people, but also мoгут to create three-dimensional moving images at any illumination and under any foreshortening. So, in a film "-=ю has substituted a rabbit рюфцхЁр?" it was required to combine risovannye scenes with the game. Have for this purpose applied a so-called method "ёыхф Ёхую ыѕёр". Computer programs identified light sources in each scene and defined light exposure of each subject. Then the computer automatically shaded risovannye images of light exposure to game scenes.
Animation in advertising
Animation so has strongly taken roots on TV that it have almost ceased to notice. It forces to come to life the table, diagrammes and cards. But most of all its imagination appreciate in advertising where speaking boxes and dancing highlights involve children and adults.
Our century of a computer communication and a virtual reality opens new prospects before animation. Its mobility, availability and riches of imagination conceal unprecedented before possibilities.