Hardly the masters of dance entertaining sovereigns of Renaissance by magnificent representations, could assume that sow seeds of art which in future centuries millions people all over the world will enjoy.
Ballet has arisen in the end of XV century in Italy, where sovereign princes employed professional masters of dance for statement of magnificent shows to make impression upon notable visitors. Besides drama elements, these representations included stately dances, processions performed by court ladies and gentlemen. Becoming the spouse of the French king, Italian Ekaterina Medici has brought to France and a fashion on strange court ballets.
Popularity of court ballets drooped, when in 1643 on the French throne there has ascended Louis XIV. The new king not only has revived dying away tradition, but also took an active part: in performances, has not too grown fat yet for dances. Even its flattering nickname has come from ballet "Ballet de la nuit" where it has acted in a role of the King-sun.
the Parisian opera
At Louis XIV ballets were given often and arranged with unprecedented splendour. Approximately then there was a division of dancers into fans and professionals. In 1661 Louis has founded Royal academy of dance "т the purposes of this perfection шёъѕёё=тр" and later 10 years - Royal academy of music. So the base of the future Parisian opera has been put.
In the Parisian opera in 1681 for the first time there were professional dancers. Later 32 years at theatre the ballet school has opened to provide constant inflow of young dancers in become especially popular operas-ballets. For many ballet became a trade. Then bases of ballet technics have been put and there were first celebrities. To their number Mari-Anna's ballerinas de belong to Kamargo and Mari Sall, and also dancer Lui Djupre.
In those days dancing career began since early years and came to the end much later, than now. Ballet and in a small share did not demand such return of forces as today, and to hide from public the growing old persons, dancers acted in masks.
Long time of the technician and style of dance remained invariable - till that time when ideas of the French dancer and choreographer Jean-George Noverra have started to take root into practice. It has dressed up actors in the lungs which were not constraining movements suits, has forbidden to put on masks and demanded from them not only dancing, but also drama skill.
In 1789 much from this that preached Noverr, has found an embodiment in Jean Dobervalja's ballet "КЁх=эр яЁхфюё=юЁюцэюё=і". Any speeches, any fairy tales on adventures of gods and the goddesses, any masks, singing and corsets. The spectator has seen simple history about the rural girl who has grown fond of the beautiful young peasant, which mother wished to give out for rich, but the silly sonny of the local landowner. Dance has found freedom and naturalness of movements.
In the beginning of XIX century all art forms including ballet, have appeared under powerful influence of romanticism, as an art current. Interest to folklore and imagination has revived. Performances "Ршыі¶шфр" became bright display of romanticism in ballet; and "гшчхыі". Approximately then ballerinas have started to dance on finger-tips - have risen on pointes. Without having ballet shoes with a rigid sock as at present dancers, they kept on pointes only any fraction of a second.
One of the first the Italian ballerina Maria Taloni which father has put for her in 1832 "Ршыі¶шфѕ" has started to dance on the tips of the toes; on a scene of the Parisian opera.
In 1836 Ogjust Burnonvil has put in Copenhagen the "Ршыі¶шфѕ" on memoirs from performance with participation of Taloni. He has created for dancers especial, easy and air, style which distinguishes to this day masters of the Danish Royal ballet.
The Heroine of other romantic ballet, the young peasant, loses reason and dies, having learnt that its beloved, nobleman Albert, cannot marry it. After death it turns to a phantom and rescues Albert from death. A premiere "гшчхыш" has taken place in 1841 on a scene of the Parisian opera with Karlottoj Grizi in a title part.
Romantic ballet was mainly art of female dance. Up the time of statement of a pas-de-katra the peak of popularity of romantic ballet already passed, and Paris as the centre of classical dance began to die away gradually.
In 1847 the French dancer Marius Petipa has been invited by the leading soloist in ballet troupe of the St.-Petersburg theatre. By then he has had time to put some ballets in the Western Europe, but only in 1862 has carried out the first ballet statement in Russia - "-юёі ¶рЁрюэр". The debut has appeared so successful that to it have immediately offered a post of the ballet master on which it has adequately served 40 years.
Petipa has created over 50 multievent ballets, including "ррщьюэфѕ" which fragment Rudolf Nuriev has put in London in 1966, and "…р фхЁъѕ" with its well-known "+ъ=юь =хэхщ" and a masterly pas de deux which with shine is executed to this day in ballet concerts.
There were years, and some the Petersburg dancers have rebelled against the strict rules of classical style established by the growing old Petipa. They thirsted new interesting plots, dreaming to dance under modern music in modern scenery.
Among dissatisfied the Petersburg usages was dancer Michael Fokin whom Sergey Dyagilev has invited to work one season in ballets of Russian enterprise which were put in Paris in 1909 Dyagilev was the central figure of the big group of theatrical artists, composers and other creative persons grasped by search of new directions in the art forms. Fokin with pleasure has grasped opened chance.
The Parisian season has crowned original triumph. Diaghilev's troupe "рѕёёъшщ срых=" in due time has caused set of disputes, but its huge influence on ballet of the XX-th century does not cause doubts. Fokin has put "Пюяхэшрэѕ" "-шфхэшх рюч№" "грЁ-я=шчѕ" "¤х=Ёѕ°ъѕ" and a number of other ballets which have become by classics of the XX-th century.
As a part of troupe outstanding dancers acted. Anna Pavlova who has made an etude "ЛьшЁр¦Ёшщ ыхсхфі" became original opening for the West; one of the most popular solo numbers in the history of ballet, and also Vaclav Nizhinsky, probably, the greatest dancer of all times, and later the choreographer who has put "¤юёыхяюыѕфхээ№щ rest ¶ртэр".
Dyagilev ordered Picasso and Cocteau's scenery, music - to Stravinsky, Debussy and Ravel. It has made ballet by centre of all new.
In the footsteps of Dyagilev
Dyagilev has died in 1929 In due course its troupe has broken up also. One of its members, George Balanchin who had behind shoulders the Petersburg school, has lodged in New York where has based School of the American ballet on which basis the troupe "-і¦-+юЁъ City …рыых" was generated;. Balanchin became one of the most influential choreographers of the XX-th century. Other protege Dyagilev, Serzh Lifar, has headed ballet troupe of the Parisian opera and long time was the most influential figure in the French ballet.
Dyagilev's Influence is felt up to now and in Great Britain. With its troupe such English ballerinas, as Mari Ramber, Alicia Markova and Ninett de acted as Valua. Ramber has created own troupe "…рыых ррьсхЁ" nowadays one of leaders in the world of modern ballet. Markova together with the dancing partner Anton Dolinym has based troupe "-юэфюэ Festival …рыых" present "+эуышщёъшщ national срых=". Ninett de Valua has based "-шъ-ЛІыыё …рыых" and ballet school which among other schoolgirls has involved the girl by name of Peggi Hukhem. Years later Peggi became the greatest ballerina of time under a name of Margo Fontejn, and troupe "-шъ-ЛІыыё" - "-юЁюыхтёъшь срых=юь".
Russian seasons in Paris - though and indirectly - have decided destiny of one more glorified actor. In 1917 a certain young man was so is shaken by the dance of Anna Pavlovoj seen in Ecuador that has decided to become the dancer. It has gone to London where became the pupil of one more Diaghilev's protege, Leonid Mjasina, and later - Mari Ramber in every possible way encouraging it of showdown in a choreography. By then the young man has replaced a name, and William Mellandejn became Frederikom Ashtonom. In its statement many popular ballets, including "Рюэ" were issued; created by it for two soloists of the Royal ballet, which steels subsequently world stars, - Anthony Dauella and Antuanett Sibli.
From all European ballet troupes, perhaps, only Royal Danish ballet has not tested Dyagilev's influence and Russian seasons, having kept fidelity to a strict format of masterpieces of Burnonvilja.
Again in the USSR
In the meantime in Russia all remains still. The Leningrad Kirov and Moscow ballet of the Bolshoi theatre, safely having endured revolution, prospered at a communistic mode.
In 1956 the Bolshoi theatre has arrived for the first time on tour to London. The ballet brought by it "рюьхю and -цѕыіх==р" used tremendous success. After five years the Kirov ballet has gone to tour round across Europe and everywhere has received an enthusiastic reception. Russia could make once again the strongest impact on the ballet world when the dancer of the Kirov theatre, being in Paris, has refused to rise aboard the plane, taking off for Russia. His name - Rudolf Nuriev. From Paris he has got over to London where long time danced together with Margo Fontejn, becoming a world celebrity.
But Nuriev, and after some years Michael Baryshnikov running from troupe of the Bolshoi theatre in 1974 during tours across the North America, were not only brilliant masters of dance. They became openers of a new direction in ballet, having proved that the man-dancer can be a star equal to the ballerina.