Renaissance was hardly probable not the most fruitful period in the history of art and has presented to the world the whole galaxy of geniuses. During that time tone to all countries of Europe was set by Italy, and in art have prevailed fidelity to antique ideals and image realism.
The Term "-ючЁюцфхэшх" (or "рхэхёёрэё") Call time of great cultural changes XV-XVI centuries which have begun in Italy and in due course have captured almost all Europe. In Renaissance human values have essentially changed. Splash in activity and mighty belief in internal forces and possibilities of the person became a basis of prosperity of arts and new vision of a role fine and its creators in a society life. For a variety of causes the Renaissance has begun with Italy. Besides art traditions, this country has saved up the riches, equal which was not in all Europe, and merchants and bankers of independent and prospering cities on its earths, wishing to glorify the names, ordered portraits, erected palaces and with great pomp decorated chapels and tombs. The combination of luxury to patronage of arts though in itself yet did not guarantee occurrence of great creations of art, nevertheless gave the chance to artists to develop the talents and to open them in a measure full and amazing imagination.
Renaissance Art, having departed from it is underlined spiritual traditions of the Middle Ages, glorified the live person and the real world round it; thereby it, having returned to antiquity ideals, in a new fashion interpreted classical traditions of civilisations of Greece and Rome. The literature, philosophy and the antiquity fine arts have given to the Italian masters a material and examples for imitation. They esteemed ancestors and for the relation to a life as a whole, and for masterpieces, and remained unsurpassed after one thousand years after falling of an antique civilisation. The Renaissance in art was not limited to return to former plots and classical styles; ancient methods in architecture, building, a sculpture and in other kinds and art directions have been rethought.
Architecture of the Renaissance
Italy - the country of numerous cities, and everyone already then was in own way fine and unique. Nevertheless, at the beginning of Renaissance, i.e. In the beginning of XV century, cultural greatest blossoming Florence has reached. The talent of Lorentso Giberti (1378-1455), the first great sculptor of Renaissance here has at the full capacity revealed. In 1402 city authorities declared competition on manufacturing by the bronze, decorated numerous reliefs (i.e. Convex cast or stamping, as on coins, images) doors in baptistery a cathedral. It was won by Giberti; on the project presented to it making a sacrifice Isaak has been moulded nude, with developed as at ancient god, muscles that resolutely contradicted Christian asceticism of art of the Middle Ages.
Sculptural doors of work of Giberti became the main ornament baptisterija the Florentine cathedral, and its workshop left many talented sculptors. One of them - Donatello (apprx. 1386 1466) - even has surpassed the teacher; its works inspired by classical samples, are surprisingly realistic. "-ртшф" (1430th) - the triumphing winner gracefully executed from bronze which have put a foot on the cut head poverzhennogo of Goliath, - became the sculptural image of freely standing human figure first since antiquity full-scale.
Besides to generation, as Giberti, belonged one more Florentine, the great architect of the early Renaissance Phillip Brunelleski (1377-1446). Its researches of monuments of antiquity have affected a science and architecture of that time, promoted practical reconsideration of ancient theories. And the elements of classical architecture revived by the master - columns, triangular pediments, the round arches and domes - were used up to XX century the Most known work of Brunelleski (a dome of the Florentine cathedral) - the original miracle of 1420th which have become possible thanks to studying of architecture of Ancient Rome.
Brunelleski became one of founders of laws of prospect - systems of the image of the subject world on a plane. These laws were necessary as sculptors (at work on reliefs), and, in particular, for painters who could not take advantage of antique samples not having prospect. However, they created, following spirit of antiquity, being inspired by an ancient sculpture, and the first who has managed to achieve the realistic and monumental image, there was Mazachcho (1401-28).
Artists and patrons of art
Throughout almost all XV century republican Florence representatives of a dynasty Medici - bankers and the dealers, got used to live with royal scope corrected. They did not feel sorry for money for glorification of a native city and the family. From masters it, like other bourgeoises, the decor - rich with bright paints and evident well registered details first of all was necessary. Probably, Sandro Botticelli (apprx. 1445-15Ю) which creations distinguish clearness of lines, a saturation of colour and ottochennost figures was the greatest continuer of this tradition.
Bottichellievo "¤юъыюэхэшх тюы§тют" written on an iconographic scene, for the first time contains the image of patrons of the artist: Medici's happy and self-confident persons rather curiously contrast with the Madonna full to tenderness and baby Jesus. Botticelli's the most known works ("-хёэр" and "рюцфхэшх -хэхЁ№") testify to other party of the Renaissance art - about passionate worship classical myths and to mystical philosophy.
Among the artists of the early Renaissance working not in Florence, Andreas Mantenja (apprx. 1431-1506) and Pero della with Francheska (apprx. 1415-92), with accuracy of the mathematician seized prospect were allocated; in "…шёхтрэшш +Ёшё=р" depth of the image and surprising calmness of characters create sensation of eternity. First three decades of XVI century have become history as the High Renaissance. Masters, whose creative maturity has had for these years, in perfection have seized prospect, a play of light and shades (so-called. kjaroskuro) and other picturesque receptions giving lines of authenticity to characters and subjects.
During the High Renaissance Rome though all great artists working in this city, it came from other places became the centre of the Italian art. To their Rome attracted knowing no limit patronage of arts, and, in particular, generosity and attention of such high-ranking priests as the daddy Is left X and Julia II daddy, aspiring to revive greatness of Rome and at the same time to immortalise the names.
Geniuses of an epoch
During the High Renaissance three greatest masters have reached original heights of art creativity. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael in the opinion of contemporaries surpassed all the skill; probably, since then in art began to see high calling of the artist, instead of order performance for money is simple.
Leonardo (1452-1520), the senior from them, possessed remarkable talents in different areas, seldom stopped long on one subject and in one place and has left on itself some cloths. Its full lives, but thus mysterious "¦рфюээр ърьэхщ" and "¦юэр -шчр" as well as possible answer classical ideals.
The Great sculptor and the artist Florentine Michelangelo Buonarotti painted (1475-1564 four years a ceiling of the Sikstinsky chapel with iconographic scenes, beginning from creation of the person. Raphael's creations (1483-1520) differ surprising cleanliness, harmony and serenity even if are filled by action. Its images of Maiden Maria - gentle, womanly, and thus ideal in the purity - have put tradition forever. Among Raphael's the famous works - frescos in papal rooms of Vatican and, in particular, "+¶шэёър °ъюыр" - top of the High Renaissance.
Donato Bramante (1444-1514) which have given lines of antique classics to symmetric constructions (as Tempetto in Rome) and the first presented drawings of raying chapels and a dome of a cathedral of St. Peter (which Michelangelo and many other masters was under construction almost hundred years with participation) was the Most known architect of that time.
the Renaissance in Venice
In a city of channels and the gondolas, separated by sea from other Italy, the Renaissance has come later. But in second half XV century Venice showed to great Giovannis Bellini's world (apprx. 1430-1516), Dzhordzhone (apprx. 1476-1510) and Titian (apprx. 1487-1576). The Venetian artists from the majority of contemporaries distinguished the big sensuality and smaller intellektualizm in treatment of plots, and to the outstanding master of a portrait Titian was not equal in colour and invoice transfer. Andrea Palladio's architect (1508-80) on samples of the Roman classics has developed style of a small apartment house (country house), some centuries applied by other architects.
After 1530th on change to classically simple Renaissance style elaborate mannerism has come. As Renaissance decline consider severe plunder of Rome by Charles's armies V in 1527, resolutely changed moods reigning in Italy and as it is paradoxical, shown that the Renaissance has reached perfection tops, and has come it is time to search for other ways.