Colourful, emotional art of baroque was created mainly for religion service. It aspired to stun the spectator, to wake up in it raised feelings, but its higher purpose was to enter believing in the world of miracles, ecstatic revelations and instants of triumph of Christian belief.
In a XVII-th century Italy kept the leading position as a source of new art ideas and receptions, and to Rome all as masters of a brush and a cutter from all continent were flown down. The art styles which have arisen in Italy invariably became the sample for imitation far behind its limits. In XVI century on change to Renaissance elaborate mannerism to which there was suzhdena a short life has come. And its dynamical successor - a Baroque taste - dominated in art throughout XVII and parts of XVIII century, having captured all Europe and Latin America.
Reform and updating
Without being especially religious, baroque art nevertheless was the spokesman of spirit kontrreformatsii - movements for reforming and the updating of the Catholic church which have revived its forces in struggle with protestantizmom.
Masters of baroque have returned to the best samples of the High Renaissance with their classical simplicity of plots and emotions. At the same time baroque has lifted art of the past epoch on a new step. There, where the classical element of the Renaissance gravitated to reserved balance, keeping an emotional distance between product and the spectator, baroque with an unrestrained pressure aspired to grasp and shake his soul. The updated classicism became main Annibale Karrachchi in creativity (1560-1609), whose plafonds in the Roman gallery Farneze are inspired by frescos Michelangelo in the Sikstinsky chapel, but deprived gloomy heat inherent in them.
The deep dramatic nature, and by a combination of a sculpture was inherent in baroque Art, architecture and music in a uniform show were reached amazing effects. With special force of line of theatrical pathetics are shown in St. Peter's majestic cathedral in Rome, and not casually during a baroque epoch the new art form - an opera has arisen.
Having adopted classicism elements - columns, triangular pediments and arches, - the architecture of baroque differed uneasy dynamism of smoothly bent surfaces and an active antagonism of the form and space.
the Outstanding personality
the First great Italian painter of an epoch of baroque, Caravaggio (1573-1610), was the person of uneasy customs. Till 1606 it worked in Rome, but, having struck a dagger of the opponent during a ball game, has been compelled to leave a city. Having reached Malta, has entered an award ioannitov (gospitalerov), however and there has drawn upon itself troubles, vvjazavshis in the next fight. Has been detained, but has managed to run, and agents of an award pursued it through all Sicily and Italy. At the age of 37 years Caravaggio has died of a fever, still being is in hiding.
It is no wonder that the person of this stamp wrote the pictures full of intense dramatic nature, underlining in them turning points in a life of the heroes, as, for example, in "¤Ёшчтрэшш St. ¦р=¶х " or "+сЁрЁхэшш Рртыр". Ordinary truthfulness of its cloths has appeared Much more unexpected for contemporaries.
Caravaggio has refused symbolical elements inherent in religious painting, placing the extraordinary phenomena in the most ordinary conditions. In the same way he has refused idealisation of the characters, so characteristic for traditions antignostics and the High Renaissance. Its nasty personal reputation was promoted in many respects by hearings that it selects models among simple peasants and prostitutes. So, represented in "¤Ёшчтрэшш St. ¦р=¶х " mytar Matfej looks as the ordinary townspeople who are counting up raised money just while Jesus calls it for itself in pupils. And in "+сЁрЁхэшш Рртыр" witnesses of a voice Divine, povergshego on knees of the known persecutor of Christians and turned it in apostle Pavel, have appeared the peasant with an exhausted face and a skewbald horsy.
Caravaggio wrote directly from nature, surprising the contemporaries who have got used to careful study of preliminary sketches. But most of all in its painting amazed use of a treatment of light and shade. Allocating figures with streams of bright light against dark surroundings, the master created the creations full unprecedented hitherto of dramatic nature.
The Caravaggism (the system created by it) was widely adopted during lifetime of the artist. But, strangely enough, in the Italy it has not taken roots, though in the footsteps of Caravaggio the first has gone worthy mentions the woman-artist - Artemizija Dzhentileski (1593-1652). But among French and Spanish karavadzhistov there were many outstanding painters, and even great Dutch Rembrandt was strongly influenced by the compatriots who have adopted innovative style of the Italian master.
The Most talented contemporary Caravaggio in Italy was Guido Reni (1575-1642), but the original titan of an epoch of baroque was, undoubtedly, Fleming Peter Pauel Rubens (1577-1640), has devoted which all third ten years of the life to study in Italy.
Representatives of following generation - Gverchino (1591-1666) and Petro yes (1596-1669) - did not know Kortona to themselves equal in the technics typical for a Baroque taste, - illjuzionizme. Their creations created full illusion of a reality at the spectator. And business here was not indoors in a framework skilfully made "¶ю=юуЁр¶шш". Illjuzionizm baroque dissolved frameworks of the image. The elementary form illjuzionizma is is masterful the door written on a blank wall or a kind from the opened window. This reception is called as the French term trompe d'oeil ("юсьрэ чЁхэш ") . The plafonds created with such skill that it is impossible to make out borders of walls concern the best samples of painting of baroque, and over a hall as if the bottomless sky where in an environment of fantastic winged beings any great monarch, the grandee or the bible character sits swings open. Bright blueness of heavens and figures soaring in clouds generate feeling of optimism and pleasure of a life to what baroque always aspired at the spectator.
the Genius of baroque
the Greatest and versatily presented genius of baroque was the glorified sculptor, the brilliant architect, the painter and poet Giovanni Lorentso Bernini (1598-1680). Tell that it has staged an opera to which has written the libretto and music, has created scenery, sketches of suits and even has invented scenic mechanisms! He was born in Naples, but the father-sculptor has brought the talented teenager to Rome. There it has quickly enough got popularity under the protection of cardinal Sipione Borgeze. By 26 years daddy Urban VII became its cartridge, and in 1629 of young Bernini has been appointed by the architect of the cathedral of the St. Peter largest in the Christian world which building lasted already kind one hundred years. Before the master the direct road to glory has opened. It almost without quitting the place worked in Rome, both many great monuments and sights of an ancient city are obliged to it by the birth.
The Bernini-sculptor was the virtuoso in true spirit of baroque. The cold marble which has left from under its cutter comes to life that soft warmth of a skin shine and fluidity of fabrics, and folds of draperies as if wave on an easy wind. Unlike early sculptures, its mature products look from the unique point and, as a rule, are placed in the architectural interior created specially for them from which as though come up towards to the spectator. This carefully thought over artistic touch is rather characteristic for baroque art. The master often aspires to involve the spectator in magic opening to its look, which will completely thaw if to bypass round a sculpture.
From all titanic work of Bernini on interiors of a cathedral of St. Peter more all amazes imagination Baldahin - majestic (height 29 canopy over a throne from the gilt bronze, erected over that place where, under the legend, St. Peter and St. Pavel has been buried. Its twisted columns symbolise the continuity of Christianity ascending through Constantinople to an ancient temple of Solomona in Jerusalem. At the same time they are rather characteristic for a baroque aesthetics, is free a column managing with classical representation for the sake of staginess and novelty. Sculptural ornaments of a skeleton and the bronze canopy ornated by brushes creating illusion of a heavy velvet fabric, do Baldahin by one of the most remarkable monuments of art of baroque.
However hardly there will be in the world the monuments, capable to compete greatness with the powerful colonnades, which Bernini has erected on the square St. Peter. As the master used to say, they as if caring hands of mother-church, unite and strengthen all Catholics in sacred belief. To number of its other Roman masterpieces the Fountain of four rivers on pjatstsa belongs also to Navona. Four main figures in this sculptural group symbolise the great rivers of different continents - Danube, Nile, Ganges and La Plata. All of them are grouped round originally antique obelisk dominating over all composition.
Despite Catholic "¦цэ№х" sources, a Baroque taste has made powerful impact on art of Flanders, Germany and Austria. Splendour and magnificence of baroque served in France to glorification of an absolute monarchy of Louis XIV. Besides, there traditions of reserved classicism were rather strong, and even in Versailles it is impossible to carry Louis grandiose palace to pure baroque.
The Baroque taste dominated in Europe to the XVIII-th century middle. Its most known sample in Russia - the Winter palace - is constructed n.Rastrelli in 1754-62
In Ukraine of a XVII-XVIII-th century - blossoming of culture of the baroque which has incorporated to orthodox tradition in surprising synthesis which has reflected spiritual and philosophical searches of a rough, inconsistent and heroic epoch. Masters of that time, continuing and as if making up missed after the West European Renaissance, drew the hero strong, clever, vigorous and passionate. But it is not so godlike titan of the Renaissance, and the person who has realised transience and illusiveness "Ёрфюё=хщ чхьэ№§". From here melancholiness and internal concentration of characters both church, and secular painting among magnificent flowering of a life. The morals of an epoch do not extol refusal from terrestrial and human, and confirm necessity of reasonable self-restriction. The person of baroque all time faces to a choice - to be happy here and now (that is on the earth) or then and there (in the sky). Constantly comparing terrestrial tverd with heavenly, artists give vent to imagination, releasing itself and the spectator from conventions, both formal religion, and the daily logic. From here fantasmagorichnost images as a characteristic element of baroque and one of the striking traits of its Ukrainian version.