Refusing traditional styles, architects of the beginning of the XX-th century aspired to creation of the functional designs corresponding to a new epoch. By 60th years this "шэ=хЁэрчшюэрыіэ№щ ё=шыі" has given way more live and diverse - "яюё=ьюфхЁэшчьѕ".
In a XIX-th century architects have faced the problems which have resulted industrialisation and growth of cities. With some they successfully consulted, including in carefully thought over projects new functional features and conveniences. However appearance and a lay-out of the majority of buildings still remained classical, and architects continued to use Greek, Gothic and other traditional styles even at designing of factories and stations.
Reformers in architecture considered as more perspective the simple and practical designs which have become possible thanks to new technologies. In 1851 the construction of the Crystal palace has shown one of such revolutionary directions. Constructed for the World's fair, this huge building represented a huge greenhouse - the pig-iron skeleton filled with glass. The building was exclusively functional (that corresponded to a task in view), rather inexpensive and simple in erection and was the representative "ётюсюфэюую" style which is easy for adapting for the most different purposes and an environment. In a XIX-th century this especially functional type of buildings without everyone ukrashatelstva yet has not found wide application out of industrial sphere though the metal design of Tour d'Eiffel in Paris (1889) was an embodiment of architectural engineering in the pure state. But technical progress has already put at disposal of architects a steel, ferro-concrete and strong glass blocks.
These materials have made possible a construction of new type of buildings - skyscrapers. Huge durability of a steel meant that now the metal skeleton can bear loading of all many-storeyed construction. Walls should not carry out any more function of bearing designs, and skyscrapers have shot up up on tens floors, and huge windows have filled in with their natural light.
the First skyscrapers have been constructed in Chicago which after a devastating fire of 1871 felt the big requirement for new buildings. After some years the electric lift (1880) that has made high-rise buildings a reality has been invented. It is considered that Houm-inshurans-bilding (1883-85, architect U.Dzhenni) which others have quickly followed was the first such building in Chicago. About 20 years in Chicago the radical architectural school Luis Salliven (1856-1924), whose department store "-рЁёюэ, Piri end Ръю==" was which most known representative prospered; (1899) with "Ёх°х=ёр=№ь" a facade from huge horizontal windows and revetted with a white tile nenesushchih became a prototype of skyscrapers across all America.
the Decor and imagination
Being the adherent strict and accurate "¶ѕэъчшюэрышчьр" Salliven nevertheless loved and widely applied at furnish of buildings style elements "ьюфхЁэ". Distinctive features "ьюфхЁэр" there was use of intricate decorative elements, including flowers and other natural forms, and also florid or, on the contrary, biting lines. This style with its special atmosphere of the refined luxury and an easy decadence has been embodied in architectural forms by Belgian Victor Hortoj (1861-1941) and Frenchman Hector Gimarom (1867-1942).
Characteristic for "ьюфхЁэр" to bends and curls as well as possible there corresponded shod pig-iron, and most visually features of this style are embodied not in buildings, and in the well-known lattices of inputs in the Parisian underground, created by Gimarom.
Other Two known architects have developed exclusively individual style close to "ьюфхЁэѕ". Scot Charles Renni Makintosh applied the extended direct forms at designing of School of art in Glasgow and in other works, successfully combining "ьюфхЁэ" with modernism tendencies. And in Barcelona the Spanish architect Antonio Gaudi (1852-1926) has created a number of buildings (including a cathedral of La Sagrada Familia and an apartment house of Kasa It is lovely), which and today amaze with imagination violence.
Without beauty and it is functional
But their creations did not satisfy inquiries of a mass society of the XX-th century. And to it industrial constructions, business centres and habitation which could be built cheaply and quickly of standard elements and panels were required. Peter Berens in Germany, created a building of turbine factory of firm "AEG" were pioneers of such functionalism; in Berlin (1908-09), both Otto Wagner (1841-1918) and its followers in Vienna. The Vagnerovsky building of post office and savings bank in Vienna (1904-06) became one of the first samples of a modernism with use of designs from a steel and glass. The radical Viennese architect and theorist Adolf Loos (Rods), having proclaimed that "юЁэрьхэ= is яЁхё=ѕяыхэшх" in the extreme form confirmed the underlined asceticism of external shape, after 1920 become typical for issued in the Western Europe "фтшцхэш ьюфхЁэшчьр". Among ancestors of this movement there was a Dutch group "Р=шыі" based in 1917. Buildings of its architects were basically variations on a theme of cubic forms with the smooth flat surface painted in white or primary colours, with flat roofs and is underlined by horizontal lines.
to Build upwards
To the similar concept more eminent Swiss architect Charles Eduar Zhannere known as Le Corbusier (1887-1966) has come also. It has embodied in the pure state installation of movement of a modernism on clearing of architecture of ornamental elements and its data to simple geometrical forms. In 20th years Le Corbusier has constructed variety of the private apartment houses which have made appreciable impact as, for example, a country house Sava in Puassi (France, 1927-31), lifted on separate support-columns so that at ground level remains open space.
In 30th years when private orders were rare, Le Corbusier has devoted itself to town-planning. He saw the decision of a problem of shortage of space and population growth in building "ттхЁ§".
Le Corbusier were inspired by architecture vision as one of leading forces in creation of a democratic and rational society, free from chaos and a past ballast. Similar ideas "ёючшрыіэюую ё=Ёюш=хыіё=тр" professed "…рѕ§рѕч" authoritative school of design in Weimar (Germany) based by Walter Gropiusom (1883-1969). In "…рѕ§рѕчх" aimed at integration of art and architecture with technics and mass production achievements, taught both art directors, and architects-modernisty, such as Mis van der to Roe (1886-1969). When in 1925 "…рѕ§рѕч" has moved to Dessau, Gropius herself has designed for it a new building.
The unrestrained Frenk Lloyd Right (1867-1959) beginning under the direction of Luis Sallivena was the Most influential figure in architecture of the USA during several generations. Dividing some principles of movement of a modernism, Right rejected philosophy "ъюЁюсюёхъ on §юфѕы §" and gift to find original decisions and entertainment effects has ennobled it over schools and directions. Among its key works it is possible to name "фюьр in яЁхЁшш" in which it has abolished space division, asserting that has invented "шэ=хЁіхЁ opened яырэр" also has removed all partitions between habitation and environment. Its well-known "-юь over тюфюярфюь" (1936) in pensilvanskom to wood looks almost as a heap of rocks. Till the end of a life Right actively created, creating such courageous projects, as Muzej Guggenhajma in New York (1956-59).
By 1932 modernism movement has found wide popularity, and its characteristic style began to be called "шэ=хЁэрчшюэрыіэ№ь". But architects-modernisty still received few orders, and 30th years have appeared for them a difficult period: Germany at nazis and the USSR at all did not recognise a modernism, and in other world new building has been seriously undermined by an economic crisis.
After the Second World War international style has appeared out of competition. Le Corbusier's idea and its adherents answered a spirit of the age, and the huge volume of post-war building demanded simplicity and use of modular designs. In 1946 Le Corbusier projects well-known "цшыѕ¦ хфшэшчѕ" - a 337-storeyed inhabited complex on open support, with shops on average floors and a garden, a day nursery, a sports complex and cafe on a roof. This project has considerably strengthened the tendency to many-storeyed building as the decision of some social and economic problems. At this time in the USA "яЁртш= сры" Mis van der Roe, creating one behind another office buildings of deceptive simplicity. Them there and then undertook to copy all over the world. The greatest influence has rendered a company building "РшуЁІь" in New York (1958, in the co-authorship with F.Johnson). This faultlessly proportional building from glass and metal is placed on a background of open space, its bronzovo-brown tone have for a long time established a fashion in colour scores.
All new and new technologies found an embodiment in so-called. Geodetic domes (trellised roofs from transparent plexiglass) and the other miracles which have decorated the international exhibition centres and stadiums. And still by the end of 60th years the disappointment in international style became obvious.
Colourless concrete and technical imperfection have led a society to open discontent with a modernism. People perceived this architecture as the cold, dim and deprived individualities. Designers of inhabited files accused of destruction of the developed communities and violent isolation of inhabitants, and builders of office centres - in infringement of historical shape of cities. To the beginning 70 some constructions earlier imitated of modern architecture, have been rejected and taken down.
In 50 harbinger new in architecture there was a number of courageous, almost sculptural decisions - a chapel in Ronshane (1950-55) Le Corbusiers and the Sydney opera of Danish architect Jorna Uttsona (1957-73). But as any of new concepts could not replace international style, after 70th years it is accepted to name architectural directions the conditional term "яюё=ьюфхЁэшчь".
The Modern society cannot do without scale building on the basis of industrially made modules. As a whole, however, the postmodernism became more attentive to requirement of the person for a cosiness and its perception of environment as something friendly and operated. Some architects have completely refused modernist ideas and have returned to classicism. Others combine in the works elements classical and traditional styles - the reception especially popular at designing of the big shopping centres. It is a part of the emotional direction, aspiring to fill architecture elements of imagination and razvlekatelnosti to involve the consumer in the blase Western world. In rare instances razvlekatelnost and technical innovations give the successful combination as which example Pompidou's Center serves in Paris (architects of Piano and Rogers).
Are happy, however, not all. To England, for example, prince Charles, actively interested an architectural heritage, urges to return for traditional values. Partly it is quite good, but the step became result of this architectural nostalgia on British isles back.
In France, on the contrary, the government encourages creation of innovative constructions, such as a glass pyramid Emin Peja in a historical courtyard of the Louvre (1989). Despite the accruing stylistic variety, the new architecture still generates fierce disputes.